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硅光子芯片外腔窄线宽半导体激光器

杜悦宁 陈超 秦莉 张星 陈泳屹 宁永强

杜悦宁, 陈超, 秦莉, 张星, 陈泳屹, 宁永强. 硅光子芯片外腔窄线宽半导体激光器[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2019, 12(2): 229-241. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0229
引用本文: 杜悦宁, 陈超, 秦莉, 张星, 陈泳屹, 宁永强. 硅光子芯片外腔窄线宽半导体激光器[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2019, 12(2): 229-241. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0229
DU Yue-ning, CHEN Chao, QIN Li, ZHANG Xing, CHEN Yong-yi, NING Yong-qiang. Narrow linewidth external cavity semiconductor laser based on silicon photonic chip[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(2): 229-241. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0229
Citation: DU Yue-ning, CHEN Chao, QIN Li, ZHANG Xing, CHEN Yong-yi, NING Yong-qiang. Narrow linewidth external cavity semiconductor laser based on silicon photonic chip[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(2): 229-241. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0229

硅光子芯片外腔窄线宽半导体激光器

doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0229
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划资助项目 2016YFE0126800

国家自然科学基金资助项目 61505206

国家自然科学基金资助项目 61674148

国家自然科学基金资助项目 51672264

国家自然科学基金资助项目 61727822

吉林省科技发展计划资助项目 20150520089JH

吉林省科技发展计划资助项目 20170204013GX

详细信息
    作者简介:

    杜悦宁(1993-), 女, 甘肃兰州人, 硕士研究生, 2015年于华中科技大学获得学士学位, 主要从事窄线宽半导体激光器方面的研究。E-mail:dynhhz@163.com

    陈超(1982-), 男, 内蒙古赤峰人, 博士, 助理研究员, 2014年于吉林大学获得博士学位, 主要从事窄线宽半导体激光器和微纳光子器件方面的研究。E-mail:chenc@ciomp.ac.cn

    秦莉(1969-), 女, 黑龙江鹤岗人, 博士, 研究员, 博士生导师, 1999年于吉林大学获得博士学位, 主要从事半导体激光技术及应用方面的研究。E-mail:qinl@ciomp.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: TN248.4

Narrow linewidth external cavity semiconductor laser based on silicon photonic chip

Funds: 

National Key R&D Program of China 2016YFE0126800

National Natural Scienece Foundation of China 61505206

National Natural Scienece Foundation of China 61674148

National Natural Scienece Foundation of China 51672264

National Natural Scienece Foundation of China 61727822

Science and Technology Development Project of Jilin Province 20150520089JH

Science and Technology Development Project of Jilin Province 20170204013GX

More Information
  • 摘要: 随着超高速光互连、相干光通信、相干检测等技术的不断发展,对激光光源的线宽、相频噪声、可调谐性和稳定性等都提出了更为严格的要求。利用基于CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)工艺的硅光子芯片与半导体增益芯片各自的优势,将二者准单片集成实现结构紧凑、低功耗和高稳定性的窄线宽半导体激光器成为近年的研究热点。该结构可通过微环谐振器、环形反射镜和马赫曾德干涉仪等提供光反馈压窄线宽,并实现宽调谐范围和稳定功率输出。本文主要阐述了硅光子芯片外腔半导体激光器的最新研究进展,针对几种包含微环谐振器的结构进行了分类介绍,深入讨论了增加耦合效率和降低端面反射率等技术难题。针对未来空间光通信和光互连等应用前景,展望了该类激光器在功率提升和光子集成方面的未来发展方向。

     

  • 图 1  硅基Si3N4波导外腔窄线宽半导体激光器典型结构[15]

    Figure 1.  Typical structure of Si-based Si3N4 waveguide external cavity narrow linewidth semiconductor laser[15]

    图 2  (a) 激光器集成MRR和LR的外腔结构(b)波长选择示意图;(c)波长调谐示意图[20]

    Figure 2.  (a)External cavity structure of laser integrated MRR and LR; (b)wavelength selection; (c)wavelength tuning[20]

    图 3  (a) 硅光子线波导外腔半导体激光器结构示意图;(b)激光器波长调谐示意图[21]

    Figure 3.  (a)Schematic of the silicon base waveguide external cavity semiconductor laser; (b)schematic of laser wavelength tuning[21]

    图 4  (a) 波长可调谐激光器的结构示意图;(b)双环谐振器的波长调谐规律;(c)不同输出功率下线宽与腔长的关系;(d)输出功率对线宽大小的影响[22]

    Figure 4.  (a)Schematic structure of wavelength tunable laser; (b)wavelength tuning rules of double ring resonator; (c)relationship between linewidth and cavity length under different output powers; (d)effect of the output power on the linewidth[22]

    图 5  (a) 激光器示意图及其外腔等效方案;(b)不同增益差条件下腔长对SMSR和线宽的影响[23]

    Figure 5.  (a)Schematic of laser and its external cavity equivalent scheme; (b)influence of cavity length on SMSR and linewidth under different gain differences[23]

    图 6  (a) 波导芯片的示意图;(b)激光器自外差拍频光谱[16]

    Figure 6.  (a)Schematic of the waveguide chip; (b)laser heterodyne beat spectrum[16]

    图 7  (a) MRR外腔激光器的示意图;(b)自延迟外差RF拍频光谱;(c)叠加光谱[24]

    Figure 7.  (a)Schematic of MRR external cavity laser; (b)self-delayed heterodyne RF-beat spectra; (c)superimposed laser spectra[24]

    图 8  (a) 基于MRR和air-bridge结构的可调谐激光器结构示意图;(b)C波段的波长范围内测得的光谱线宽[27]

    Figure 8.  (a)Schematic structure of tunable laser based on waveguide microring resonators with air-bridge structure; (b)measured spectral linewidth within C band wavelength range[27]

    图 9  (a) 激光器的结构;(b)有效腔长与线宽和品质因数Q的关系[29]

    Figure 9.  (a)Laser structure; (b)relationship between Lfilter and the linewidth and the quality factor Q[29]

    图 10  (a) 改进前滤波器配置示意图;(b)改进后滤波器配置示意图;(c)对比改进前后的输出功率大小[20]

    Figure 10.  (a)Filter configuration without improvement; (b)improved filter configuration; (c)comparison of output powers before and after improvement[20]

    图 11  (a) 激光器示意图;(b)滤波器设计方案[32]

    Figure 11.  (a)Schematic of the tunable laser; (b)filter design scheme[32]

    图 12  (a) 激光器结构(左)不含MZI的波导结构(右)含MZI的波导结构;(b)不含MZI的结构中(上)两个环形谐振器透射率及(下)波导总透射率;(c)含MZI的结构中(上)MZI与两环形谐振器透射率(下)波导总透射率[35]

    Figure 12.  (a)Schematic structure of laser(left) waveguide structure without MZI and (right) waveguide structure with MZI; (b)in structure without MZI(up) the transmittance of two ring resonators and (down)the total transmittance; (c)in structure with MZI(up) the transmittance of MZI and two ring resonators and (down) the total transmittance[35]

    图 13  (a) 具有高度非对称MZI的窄线宽可调谐激光器;(b)光谱线宽的计算值和实测值[37]

    Figure 13.  (a)Narrow-spectral-linewidth wavelength-tunable laser with highly asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer; (b)calculated and measured values for spectral linewidths[37]

    图 14  模斑转换器示意图[38]

    Figure 14.  Schematic of the SSC[38]

    图 15  (a) Si-SOA界面结构示意图;(b)SOA的近场图样;(c)Si波导的近场图样;(d)模拟不同耦合损耗(C=1.5、4.0、6.0)下的光功率-电流特性[46]

    Figure 15.  (a)Schematic of Si-SOA interface structure; (b)near field pattern(NFP) at SOA facet, (c)NFP at Si facet; (d)simulated Light-power-Current characteristics for different coupling losses(C=1.5, 4.0, 6.0 dB)[46]

    图 16  对硅芯层高度为167 nm的模斑转换器的损耗测量结果[47]

    Figure 16.  Loss measurement results of SSC for silicon core height of 167 nm[47]

    图 17  (a) 不含反射的光耦合的典型反射光谱;(b)含反射的光耦合的典型反射光谱[47]

    Figure 17.  Typical reflectance spectra of optical coupling (a)without reflection (b)with reflection[47]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-03-21
  • 修回日期:  2018-05-06
  • 刊出日期:  2019-04-01

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