有效反射面积小,运动速度快的空间低轨卫星和小碎片的日益增多对现有地基探测跟踪技术提出了挑战。本文分析了国外现有低轨小目标光电探测技术的发展现状,结合低轨小目标的探测需求,提出了一种用于低轨微小卫星及小碎片搜索/跟踪探测的机动式车载大视场光电望远镜设计方案。介绍了该望远镜的光学系统、跟踪架及载车,描述了它的工作模式和图像处理,讨论了系统的搜索和探测能力。结果表明,该望远镜对300 km轨道高度的目标搜索能力达到13.5星等(相当于直径5 cm目标),可以满足搜索和跟踪低轨微小卫星及小碎片探测的实际需求。
As more and more small satellites and debris appeare in low orbits, it presentes a big challenge to ground-based detecting and tracking techniques for those objects with fewer effective reflecting areas and high speeds. In this paper, the present status of detecting and tracking techniques for small objects in low orbit is analyzed. An automotive truck-based telescope with a large Field of View(FOV) is designed to search/track micro satellites and small debris. The optical system and system mount in the telescope are introduced and its working mode and data processing are described. Finally, it discusses searching and detection abilities of the proposed system. The obtained results show that the telescope has the capability to search 13.5 magnitude objects(5 cm object in diameter) at the 300 km altitude orbit. It can satisfy the requirements of searching and tracking micro satellites and small debris in low earth orbits.