## 留言板

 引用本文: 李向军, 候小梅, 程钢, 裘国华, 严德贤, 李九生. 基于柔性基底动态调焦石墨烯超表面聚焦反射镜的仿真研究[J]. 中国光学（中英文）, 2021, 14(4): 1019-1028.
LI Xiang-jun, HOU Xiao-mei, CHENG Gang, QIU Guo-hua, YAN De-xian, LI Jiu-sheng. Simulation on tunable graphene metasurface focusing mirror based on flexible substrate[J]. Chinese Optics, 2021, 14(4): 1019-1028. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0171
 Citation: LI Xiang-jun, HOU Xiao-mei, CHENG Gang, QIU Guo-hua, YAN De-xian, LI Jiu-sheng. Simulation on tunable graphene metasurface focusing mirror based on flexible substrate[J]. Chinese Optics, 2021, 14(4): 1019-1028.

• 中图分类号: TN29

## Simulation on tunable graphene metasurface focusing mirror based on flexible substrate

Funds: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 62001444, No. 61871355, No. 61831012); Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LQ20F010009, No. LY18F010016); Basic Public Welfare Research Project of Zhejiang Province (No. LGF19F010003)
###### Corresponding author:yandexian1991@cjlu.edu.cn
• 摘要: 焦距范围可调的超薄聚焦反射镜在片上太赫兹光谱和成像等紧凑型系统中有重要应用价值。通过改变几何尺寸和调节化学势可以使石墨烯亚波长反射结构获得0~2π的相位，结合聚二甲基硅氧烷（PDMS）柔性基底的动态拉伸可以实现大动态范围的超薄太赫兹聚焦反射镜。本文设计了一个工作频率为1.0 THz，宽度为12 mm，焦距为60 mm，厚度为75 μm的柔性基底动态调焦石墨烯超表面聚焦反射镜。首先在基底自然状态下通过掺杂调节单元石墨烯条的化学势和改变宽度使其反射相位覆盖0~2π相位，并按照预定设计的相位空间分布达到反射聚焦效果。然后通过横向拉伸柔性基底实现反射镜焦距的动态调节。仿真结果表明：柔性基底长度在100%~140%内范围变化时，反射镜的焦距由53.4 mm增加到112.1 mm，动态调焦范围可达到最小焦距的109.7%，同时聚焦效率从69.7%减小到46.8%。此外，本文还研究了该反射镜在宽频带范围的工作性能。仿真结果表明：其对于在0.85~1.0 THz范围内的入射平面波都能实现良好的动态聚焦。

• 图 1  石墨烯反射超表面单元结构图

Figure 1.  The structure of one unit cell graphene reflective metasurface

图 2  柔性基底动态调焦石墨烯太赫兹超表面聚焦反射镜工作示意图。(a)为拉伸前反射镜，衬底横向长度为L，基底厚度为d，焦距为f；(b)为衬底PDMS沿x轴拉伸ε后反射镜，横向长度变为L(1+ε)，基底厚度为d/(1+ε)，焦距$f'$变为(1+ε)2f

Figure 2.  Schematic of the dynamic focusing graphene terahertz metasurface focusing on a flexible substrate. (a) is the encapsulated in a flexible polymer, the lateral length of the substrate is L, the thickness of the base is d, and the focal length is f; (b) is the reflector after the substrate PDMS stretches ε along the x axis, the lateral length becomes L(1+ε), the substrate thickness is d/(1+ε), and the focal length $f'$ becomes (1+ε)2f

图 3  柔性基底动态调焦石墨烯太赫兹超表面单元结构设计。(a)和(b)是单元结构的反射系数和相位随石墨烯的化学势μc和宽度w变化情况；(c)为经过优化计算得到的8个单元结构的反射系数和相位响应；(d)为拉伸前后PDMS衬底横向距原点距离与相位关系图

Figure 3.  The design of graphene terahertz metasurface unit structure for dynamic focusing on flexible substrate. (a) and (b) is the change of the reflection coefficient and phase of the unit structure with the chemical potential μc and width w of graphene; (c) is the reflection coefficient and phase response of the eight unit structure obtained through optimization calculation; (d) is a diagram of the relationship between the PDMS substrate lateral distance from the origin and the phase before and after stretching

图 4  柔性基底动态调焦石墨烯太赫兹超表面聚焦反射镜在入射波频率为1.0 THz，衬底拉伸时归一化的电场分布。其中(a)~(e)对应衬底拉伸100%~140%

Figure 4.  The normalized electric field distribution of the dynamic focusing graphene terahertz metasurface focusing mirror on the flexible substrate when the incident wave frequency is 1.0 THz and the substrate is stretched. (a)~(e) correspond to 100%~140% of the substrate stretch

图 5  柔性基底动态调焦石墨烯太赫兹超表面聚焦反射镜入射波频率为1.0 THz，衬底拉伸时理论焦距（黑色圆圈）与仿真计算焦距（红色方块）对比情况

Figure 5.  The theoretical focal length (black circle) given by formula (4) when the substrate is stretched is compared with the simulated focal length (red square). The frequency of the incident wave of the dynamic focusing graphene terahertz metasurface focusing mirror on the flexible substrate is 1.0 THz

图 6  柔性基底动态调焦石墨烯太赫兹超表面聚焦反射镜在0.85~1.0 THz宽频工作频率下，PDMS拉伸幅度为100%到140%时，沿z轴(x=0)的电场强度分布图。其中(a)~(d)对应频率为0.85 THz、0.90 THz、0.95 THz和1.0 THz

Figure 6.  The electric field intensity distribution of the graphene terahertz meta-surface focusing mirror with flexible substrate dynamic focusing along the z-axis (x=0) at 0.85~1.0 THz broadband operating frequency when the PDMS stretching range is 100% to 140%. Among them (a)~(d) correspond to frequencies 0.85 THz, 0.90 THz, 0.95 THz and 1.0 THz, respectively

图 7  柔性基底动态调焦石墨烯太赫兹超表面聚焦反射镜在0.85~1.0 THz宽频工作频率内，PDMS拉伸幅度为100%~140%的焦平面的电场强度分布图。其中(a)~(d)对应频率为0.85 THz、0.90 THz、0.95 THz、1.0 THz。

Figure 7.  The electric field intensiy distributiton of the focal plane of the graphene terahertz meta-surface focusing mirror with flexible substrate dynamic focusing at 0.85~1.0 THz broadband operating frequency when the PDMS stretching range is 100%~140%. (a)~(d) correspond to frequencies of 0.85 THz, 0.90 THz, 0.95 THz, 1.0 THz.

图 8  石墨烯太赫兹超表面聚焦反射镜在0.85~1.0 THz宽频工作频率下的焦点位置(a, b)和聚焦效率(c, d)随柔性基底伸长100%~140%变化情况

Figure 8.  The focus position (a, b) and focusing efficiency (c, d) of the graphene terahertz meta-surface focusing mirror at 0.85~1.0 THz broadband operating frequency varying with the elongation of the flexible substrate in the range of 100%~140%

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##### 出版历程
• 收稿日期:  2020-09-25
• 修回日期:  2020-10-13
• 网络出版日期:  2021-01-25
• 刊出日期:  2021-07-01

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