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Optical vortices in nanophotonics

 引用本文: 李晨昊, MaierStefan A., 任浩然. 纳米光子学中的光学涡旋[J]. 中国光学（中英文）, 2021, 14(4): 792-811.
LI Chen-hao, MAIER Stefan A., REN Hao-ran. Optical vortices in nanophotonics[J]. Chinese Optics, 2021, 14(4): 792-811. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0066
 Citation: LI Chen-hao, MAIER Stefan A., REN Hao-ran. Optical vortices in nanophotonics[J]. Chinese Optics, 2021, 14(4): 792-811.

• 中图分类号: O439

## Optical vortices in nanophotonics

##### doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0066
Funds: Supported by China Scholarship Council National Construction High-Level University Public Postgraduate Project (No. 201906120420)
###### Corresponding author:Haoran.Ren@mq.edu.au
• 摘要: 在过去的二十年中，携带轨道角动量的涡旋光引起了研究人员的广泛兴趣。涡旋光不仅在光与物质相互作用中扮演着重要角色，而且可极大拓宽光学信息的承载容量。与此同时，纳米科技的发展使得纳米光子学成为一个新兴学科，开辟了利用纳米结构和器件对光进行调控的新途径。当纳米技术和涡旋光相结合时，衍生出许多新的思路和概念。本文回顾和总结了基于纳米光子学的涡旋光产生、探测及其应用，并对该研究领域的未来进行了展望。

• Figure 1.  Schematics of the SAM and OAM of light. (a) Left or right circular polarization light with SAM of 1 or −1; (b) Two kinds of light carrying different OAM states with −1, 1 as well as their phase and intensity distribution at bottom row, respectively.

Figure 2.  Nanophotonic generation of optical vortices using metasurfaces. (a) A dynamic phase metasurface imprinted with a spiral phase profile. (b) A spin-to-orbital conversion L-shape metasurface for the generation of optical vortices with $l=\pm 2$. (c) An interleaved geometric metasurface for the simultaneous generation of multiple optical vortices carrying different OAM modes. (d) A J-plate metasurface based on a new concept of arbitrary spin-orbit conversion. The images in (a)-(d) were adapted from Refs.36-39, respectively.

Figure 3.  Generation of OAM-carrying optical vortices via dielectric and plasmonic resonators. (a) An array of OAM vortex WGM emitters. (b) An OAM microlaser. (c) A silicon waveguide-based OAM multiplexer. (d) Principle of a chirality-tunable OAM microlaser. (e) A perovskite BIC metasurface. (f) A plasmonic vortex resonator. (g) Schematic of a plasmonic skyrmion imaged through a time-resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscope. The images in (a)-(g) were adapted from Refs. 41-47, respectively.

Figure 4.  Plasmonic and photocurrent detection of optical vortices. (a) A holographic plasmonic metasurface was used to detect a single OAM mode in the near-field. (b) An ultracompact OAM-demultiplexing chip. (c) A plasmonic topological insulator-based OAM nanometrology chip. (d) Photocurrent detection of incident optical vortices. The images in (a)-(d) were adapted from Refs. 49, 23, 24, 50 respectively.

Figure 5.  Optical trapping and edge-enhancement imaging using optical vortices. (a) A particle trapped by the OAM and SAM of light, respectively. (b) A particle necklace consisting of 26 particles, trapped by a vortex beam. (c) Edge-enhancement imaging based on an optical vortex beam. The images in (a)-(c) were adapted from Refs 27, 95 and 121, respectively.

Figure 6.  Principle of OAM holography. (a) Schematic of an OAM-preserving hologram capable of transferring the OAM property from an OAM incident beam to a holographic image. The inset (right top) shows the OAM property transfer in the spatial frequency domain (k-space). The inset (right bottom) presents the phase (φ) and intensity (I) distributions of single pixels in the reconstructed holographic images, respectively. Pseudo colors are used to visualize different OAM modes. (b) Schematic of an OAM-selective hologram sensitive to a given OAM mode. The inset (right top) shows the OAM conversion from an incident OAM beam to a fundamental spatial mode after passing through an OAM-selective hologram. The inset (right bottom) presents the phase (φ) and intensity (I) distributions of single pixels in the reconstructed holographic images using different OAM modes. High intensity is achieved in each pixel whenever the incident light has a topological charge matching the design of the interface. (c) Schematic of an OAM-multiplexing hologram capable of reconstructing multiple distinctive OAM-dependent holographic images. Fig. 6 is adapted from Ref. 122.

Figure 7.  Principle of high-bandwidth twisted light holography based on a complex-amplitude metasurface hologram. (a) Time-dependent OAM incident beams impinge on a large-scale complex-amplitude metasurface hologram to reconstruct two holographic videos consisting of a large number of OAM-dependent image frames. (b) SEM and optical (bottom left inset) images of a fabricated complex-amplitude OAM-multiplexing metasurface hologram. Enlarged SEM images of nanopillars are given on the right side. Fig. 7 was adapted from Ref. 123.

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##### 出版历程
• 收稿日期:  2021-03-25
• 修回日期:  2021-04-19
• 网络出版日期:  2021-05-24
• 刊出日期:  2021-07-01

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