留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

数字域时间延迟积分CMOS遥感相机动态传函建模分析

陶淑苹 冯钦评 陈晓龙 郑亮亮 张紫玉 高倓

陶淑苹, 冯钦评, 陈晓龙, 郑亮亮, 张紫玉, 高倓. 数字域时间延迟积分CMOS遥感相机动态传函建模分析[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2022, 15(5): 983-991. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0111
引用本文: 陶淑苹, 冯钦评, 陈晓龙, 郑亮亮, 张紫玉, 高倓. 数字域时间延迟积分CMOS遥感相机动态传函建模分析[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2022, 15(5): 983-991. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0111
TAO Shu-ping, FENG Qin-ping, CHEN Xiao-long, ZHENG Liang-liang, ZHANG Zi-yu, GAO Tan. Dynamic MTF modeling and analysis of digital domain TDI CMOS remote sensing camera[J]. Chinese Optics, 2022, 15(5): 983-991. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0111
Citation: TAO Shu-ping, FENG Qin-ping, CHEN Xiao-long, ZHENG Liang-liang, ZHANG Zi-yu, GAO Tan. Dynamic MTF modeling and analysis of digital domain TDI CMOS remote sensing camera[J]. Chinese Optics, 2022, 15(5): 983-991. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0111

数字域时间延迟积分CMOS遥感相机动态传函建模分析

doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0111
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(No. 62075219);吉林省重点科技研发计划项目(No. 20220201076GX)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    陶淑苹(1986—),女,山东潍坊人,博士,副研究员,硕士生导师,2008年于四川大学通信工程专业获得学士学位,2013年于中国科学院大学光学工程专业获得博士学位,主要从事空间遥感成像的研究。E-mail:taoshuping-163@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TP394.1;TH691.9

Dynamic MTF modeling and analysis of digital domain TDI CMOS remote sensing camera

Funds: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 62075219); Key Technological Research Projects of Jilin Province, China (No. 20220201076GX)
More Information
  • 摘要:

    调制传递函数(MTF)是遥感相机的重要评价指标,但是目前对于数字域 TDI CMOS 相机动态MTF特性研究十分有限,为了深入研究其像质下降机理,结合数字域TDI CMOS成像原理,建立了像元、电子快门、曝光时间、振动引起的数字域TDI成像MTF下降数学模型。结合推导模型开展了预估分析和实验验证。结果表明:传感器的有效像元区域分布会影响图像MTF,且开口率越小影响越大;CMOS传感器的卷帘快门会导致数字域TDI成像MTF下降,卷帘速度越慢影响越严重,其中卷帘速度从6 μs变为10 μs时,对应的图像MTF从0.191下降为0.177;曝光时间越短则MTF越高,尤其当存在低频像移失配时更为明显,曝光时间从180 μs减小为100 μs时,图像MTF从0.126提高为0.155,但同时也会影响图像信噪比,因此在实际应用中应合理选择曝光时间。

     

  • 图 1  数字域TDI算法原理图

    Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of TDI algorithm in digital domain

    图 2  “L”形有效区域像元结构图

    Figure 2.  Pixel structure of "L" shaped effective area

    图 3  不同开口率下TDI CMOS的MTF曲线

    Figure 3.  MTF curves of TDI CMOS at different opening rates

    图 4  运动目标点在传感器投影成像为线

    Figure 4.  The moving target point is imaged as a line in the projection of the sensor

    图 5  不同RS速度和级数下的MTF曲线

    Figure 5.  MTF curves at different RS speeds and stages

    图 6  像移与正弦运动关系图

    Figure 6.  Relationship between image motion and sinusoidal motion

    图 7  MTF与振动频率及曝光时间的关系图

    Figure 7.  Relationship between MTF, vibration frequency and exposure time

    图 8  不同开口率下扇形靶标仿真图像:从左到右的开口率分别为0.8、0.5、0.3

    Figure 8.  Simulation images of the sector target under different aperture ratios: 0.8, 0.5 and 0.3 (from left to right)

    图 9  图8中各图像的MTF曲线

    Figure 9.  MTF of images in figure 8

    图 10  行读出时间分别为(a)6 μs;(b)10 μs时不同卷帘速度的TDI图像

    Figure 10.  TDI images with different rolling shutter speeds. (a) 6 μs; (b) 10 μs

    图 11  不同曝光时间的TDI图像:曝光时间(从上到下)分别为100、140、180 μs

    Figure 11.  TDI images with different exposure times. 100, 140 and 180 μs (from top to bottom)

    表  1  图像MTF和SNR测试结果

    Table  1.   The MTF and SNR test results of images

    测试图像MTFSNR/dB
    上图0.15517.496
    中图0.13623.012
    下图0.12626.004
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1] XU J T, SHI X L, NIE K M, et al. A global shutter high speed TDI CMOS image sensor with pipelined charge transfer pixel[J]. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2018, 18(7): 2729-2736. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2018.2800743
    [2] LEPAGE G, BOGAERTS J, MEYNANTS G. Time-delay-integration architectures in CMOS image sensors[J]. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2009, 56(11): 2524-2533. doi: 10.1109/TED.2009.2030648
    [3] NIE K M, YAO S Y, XU J T, et al. A 128-stage analog accumulator for CMOS TDI image sensor[J]. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I:Regular Papers, 2014, 61(7): 1952-1961. doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2014.2304663
    [4] NIE K M, YAO S Y, XU J T, et al. Thirty two-stage CMOS TDI image sensor with on-chip analog accumulator[J]. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)Systems, 2014, 22(4): 951-956. doi: 10.1109/TVLSI.2013.2256809
    [5] NIE K M, XU J T, GAO ZH Y. A 128-Stage CMOS TDI image sensor with on-chip digital accumulator[J]. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2016, 16(5): 1319-1324. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2015.2499743
    [6] TAO SH P, ZHANG X Y, XU W, et al. Realize the image motion self-registration based on TDI in digital domain[J]. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2019, 19(23): 11666-11674. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2935112
    [7] 陶淑苹, 张续严, 冯钦评, 等. 针对广域像移变化的数字时间延迟积分方法[J]. 光学学报,2019,39(9):0911001. doi: 10.3788/AOS201939.0911001

    TAO SH P, ZHANG X Y, FENG Q P, et al. Digital time delay and integration method for wide-range image motion variation[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2019, 39(9): 0911001. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3788/AOS201939.0911001
    [8] 陶淑苹, 金光, 曲宏松, 等. 实现空间高分辨成像的数字域时间延迟积分CMOS相机设计及分析[J]. 光学学报,2012,32(4):0411001. doi: 10.3788/AOS201232.0411001

    TAO SH P, JIN G, QU H S, et al. Design and analysis of CMOS camera based on time delay and integration in digital domain to realize spatial high-resolution imaging[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2012, 32(4): 0411001. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3788/AOS201232.0411001
    [9] 陶淑苹, 金光, 曲宏松, 等. 采用卷帘数字域TDI技术的CMOS成像系统设计[J]. 红外与激光工程,2012,41(9):2380-2385. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-2276.2012.09.024

    TAO SH P, JIN G, QU H S, et al. Design of CMOS Imaging System based on Rolling TDI in Digital Domain[J]. Infrared and Laser Engineering, 2012, 41(9): 2380-2385. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1007-2276.2012.09.024
    [10] TAO SH P, JIN G, ZHANG X Y, et al. Realization of the FPGA based TDI algorithm in digital domain for CMOS cameras[J]. Proceedings of SPIE, 2012, 8419: 841930. doi: 10.1117/12.976025
    [11] 曲宏松, 张叶, 金光. 基于数字域TDI算法改进面阵CMOS图像传感器功能[J]. 光学 精密工程,2010,18(8):1896-1903.

    QU H S, ZHANG Y, JIN G. Improvement of performance for CMOS area image sensors by TDI algorithm in digital domain[J]. Optics and Precision Engineering, 2010, 18(8): 1896-1903. (in Chinese)
    [12] 庄绪霞, 王治乐, 阮宁娟, 等. 像移对星载TDICCD相机成像品质的影响分析[J]. 航天返回与遥感,2013,34(6):66-73. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1009-8518.2013.06.009

    ZHUANG X X, WANG ZH L, RUAN N J, et al. Influence analysis of image motion on image quality of satellite-board TDI camera optical system[J]. Spacecraft Recovery &Remote Sensing, 2013, 34(6): 66-73. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1009-8518.2013.06.009
    [13] 邱振戈, 岳庆兴, 张春玲, 等. TDI-CCD在轨成像质量MTF数值模拟[J]. 国土资源遥感,2009,21(1):13-17,33.

    QIU ZH G, YUE Q X, ZHANG CH L, et al. The MTF numerical simulation of TDI-CCD on-orbit imaging quality[J]. Remote Sensing for Land &Resources, 2009, 21(1): 13-17,33. (in Chinese)
    [14] HEO H P, RA S W. Reducing motion blur by adjusting integration time for scanning camera with TDI CMOS[J]. International Journal of Signal Processing Systems, 2015, 3(2): 172-176.
    [15] MAYER F, BUGNET H, PESENTI S, et al. First measurements of true charge transfer TDI (time delay integration) using a standard CMOS technology[J]. Proceedings of SPIE, 2017, 10564: 105640N.
    [16] 何春良, 李斌桥, 刘振旺, 等. TDI CMOS图像传感器曝光时间优化方法研究[J]. 光学学报,2015,35(2):0204002. doi: 10.3788/AOS201535.0204002

    HE CH L, LI B Q, LIU ZH W, et al. Integration time optimization for TDI CMOS image senor[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2015, 35(2): 0204002. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3788/AOS201535.0204002
    [17] 袁高斌. TDI-CMOS成像系统研究与设计及MTF分析[D]. 天津: 天津大学, 2012.

    YUAN G B. Research and design TDI-CMOS imaging system and MTF[D]. Tianjin: Tianjin University, 2012. (in Chinese)
    [18] 徐江涛, 金伟民, 聂凯明, 等. TDI-CMOS图像传感器像移降质模型研究[J]. 南开大学学报(自然科学版),2018,51(6):28-34,47.

    XU J T, JIN W M, NIE K M, et al. Research of image motion degradation model for TDI-CMOS image sensor[J]. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nankaiensis, 2018, 51(6): 28-34,47. (in Chinese)
    [19] 陶淑苹, 金光. 卷帘快门对数字域TDI成像的影响分析[J]. 光学学报,2015,35(3):0311001. doi: 10.3788/AOS201535.0311001

    TAO SH P, JIN G. Influence analysis on the rolling shutter for time delay and integration in digital domain[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2015, 35(3): 0311001. (in Chinese) doi: 10.3788/AOS201535.0311001
  • 加载中
图(11) / 表(1)
计量
  • 文章访问数:  36
  • HTML全文浏览量:  23
  • PDF下载量:  68
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-06-01
  • 修回日期:  2022-07-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-08-05

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回