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面向偏振成像的超构表面研究进展

周俊焯 郝佳 余晓畅 周健 邓宸伟 虞益挺

周俊焯, 郝佳, 余晓畅, 周健, 邓宸伟, 虞益挺. 面向偏振成像的超构表面研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2023, 16(5): 973-995. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0234
引用本文: 周俊焯, 郝佳, 余晓畅, 周健, 邓宸伟, 虞益挺. 面向偏振成像的超构表面研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2023, 16(5): 973-995. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0234
ZHOU Jun-zhuo, HAO Jia, YU Xiao-chang, ZHOU Jian, DENG Chen-wei, YU Yi-ting. Recent advances in metasurfaces for polarization imaging[J]. Chinese Optics, 2023, 16(5): 973-995. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0234
Citation: ZHOU Jun-zhuo, HAO Jia, YU Xiao-chang, ZHOU Jian, DENG Chen-wei, YU Yi-ting. Recent advances in metasurfaces for polarization imaging[J]. Chinese Optics, 2023, 16(5): 973-995. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0234

面向偏振成像的超构表面研究进展

doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0234
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(No. 51975483);陕西省重点研发计划(No. 2020ZDLGY01-03);宁波市自然科学基金(No. 202003N4033);深圳市虚大自由探索项目(No. 2021Szvup112);深圳市虚拟实验室建设项目(No. YFJGJS1.0)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    周俊焯(1999—),男,浙江温州人,西北工业大学博士研究生,2021年于南京理工大学获得学士学位,主要从事微纳偏振器件、偏振成像系统及其应用方面的研究。E-mail:junzh@mail.nwpu.edu.cn

    虞益挺(1980—),男,浙江宁波人,博士,教授,博士生导师,2003年、2006年、2010年于西北工业大学分别获得学士、硕士和博士学位,主要从事微纳光学成像与传感技术研究。E-mail:yyt@nwpu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O436.1;O436.3

Recent advances in metasurfaces for polarization imaging

Funds: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51975483); Key Research and Development Projects of Shaanxi Province (No. 2020ZDLGY01-03); Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo (No. 202003N4033); Science and Development Program of Local Lead by Central Government, Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Committee (No. 2021Szvup112); Science, Technology and Innovation Commission of Shenzhen Municipality (No. YFJGJS1.0)
More Information
  • 摘要:

    作为一种新型光电探测技术,偏振成像可同时获取场景的空间分布和偏振特征,针对特定应用场景具有优异的材质区分及轮廓辨识能力,广泛应用于目标探测、生命科学、环境监测、三维成像等领域。偏振分光或滤光器件是偏振成像系统的核心元件,然而该类传统器件受限于体积庞大、性能不佳、易受干扰等问题,难以满足高集成、高性能、高可靠性偏振成像系统的要求。超构表面是一种结构单元以亚波长间隔准周期排列而成的二维平面器件,可在不同偏振方向对光场的振幅、相位进行精细操纵。基于超构表面的偏振器件具有体积小、重量轻、维度高等特点,为集成化偏振成像系统提供了新的解决方案。本文针对偏振成像,综述相关超构表面的功能原理、发展脉络和未来趋势,讨论并展望其在成像应用和系统集成方面所面临的挑战与机遇。

     

  • 图 1  基于等离激元结构和全电介质结构的超构表面。(a)基于GSP结构的全斯托克斯偏振测定光栅型超构表面[84];(b)该光栅型超构表面由3组相位梯度不同的微纳结构阵列组成,可调控(x, y)、(a, b)、(l, r)正交偏振态[84];(c)基于GSP结构的光栅型圆偏振分光超构表面[85];(d)基于GSP的透镜型偏振分光超构表面[86];(e)超构单元包含2种TiO2微纳结构,分别调控左旋和右旋偏振光[92];(f)圆二色性甲虫外骨骼成像实验[92];(g)超像元由分别会聚xyablr偏振态的超构透镜组成[93];(h)该超构表面可作为Hartmann-Shack波前传感器,径向偏振光的强度分布(左),解析得到的偏振轮廓图(右)[93]

    Figure 1.  Metasurfaces based on plasmonic and all dielectric structures. (a) Metagrating based on a GSP structure for the determination of full Stokes parameters[84]; (b) the metagrating consists three kinds of micro-nano structure arrays with different phase gradients, which can manipulate orthogonal polarization states (x, y), (a, b), (l, r)[84]; (c) circular polarization splitting GSP-based metagrating[85]; (d) polarization splitting and focusing metasurface GSP-based metalens[86]; (e) meta-atom includes two kinds of TiO2 nano-micro structures manipulating left-handed and right-handed circular polarization light, respectively; (f) polarization image of the exoskeleton of a chiral beetle[92]; (g) meta-pixel is composed of metalenses focusing xyablr polarization states, respectively[93]; (h) the metasurface can be served as Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, intensity distribution of radially polarized beam (left), and calculated polarization profile (right)[93]

    图 2  基于几何相位和传输相位原理的全电介质超构表面。(a)由非晶硅纳米椭圆柱构建的超构表面[101];(b)光栅型偏振分光超构表面、透镜型偏振分光超构表面、偏振调控全息超构表面和偏振调控特殊光场生成超构表面[101];(c)透镜阵列型偏振分光超构表面[102];(d)目标偏振图案(左)、基于常规偏振成像方法得到的偏振图案(中)、基于超构表面得到的偏振图案(右)[102];(e)单透镜型偏振分光超构表面[103];(f)3块偏振分光超构透镜拼成的超构表面[104];(g)6种基本偏振态入射,超构表面的偏振分束聚焦效果实验与仿真的比较[104]

    Figure 2.  All dielectric metasurface based on geometric phase and propagation phase theory. (a) The metasurface is composed of elliptical amorphous silicon posts[101]; (b) polarization splitting metagrating, polarization splitting metalens, polarization-dependent holographic metasurface and polarization-dependent special optical field metasurface[101]; (c) polarization splitting metalens array[102]; (d) targeted polarization mask (left), the fabricated mask imaged using conventional polarimetry (middle), the same mask imaged using the metasurface (right)[102]; (e) polarization splitting metalens[103]; (f) planar metasurface consisting of three polarization splitting metalenses[104]; (g) the comparison of measured and simulated results of the metasurface focusing effect with the incidence of six basic polarization states[104]

    图 3  基于矩阵傅立叶光学的光栅型偏振分光超构表面的原理、成像及系统。(a)光栅型偏振分光超构表面原理图[105];(b)搭配后置透镜和探测器可实现偏振成像[105];(c)4种非常规偏振态[105];(d)集成该超构表面的全斯托克斯偏振成像系统[105];(e)偏振测定图像[105];(f)偏振角图像[105];(g)全斯托克斯偏振测定模块[106]

    Figure 3.  Theory, imaging and system of a polarimetric metagrating based on matrix Fourier optics. (a) Theoretical model of a polarimetric metagrating[105]; (b) combination with a rear lens and a detector can achieve polarization imaging[105]; (c) four kinds of unconventional polarization states[105]; (d) full Stokes polarization imaging system integrated with the metagrating[105]; (e) polarimetric measurement image[105]; (f) angle of polarization image[105]; (g) full Stokes polarimetric module[106]

    图 4  宽带消色差偏振分光超构表面。(a)耦合矩形电介质波导结构[110];(b)聚焦相位可分为基础相位和色散相位[111];(c)特殊设计的微纳金属结构单元存在数个谐振峰[111];(d)实验和仿真得到的2种偏振态下超构透镜焦长随波长的变化情况[113];(e)2种线偏振光入射时测得的散射场强度分布图[113];(f)近红外波段消色差多维探测超构透镜阵列[115];(g)XLP和LCP入射时测得的散射场强度分布图[115]

    Figure 4.  Broadband achromatic polarization splitting metasurfaces. (a) Coupled rectangular dielectric resonators[110]; (b) the focusing phase can be divided into the basic phase and the chromatic phase[111]; (c) there are several resonant peaks in the specially designed micro-nano metallic structure element[111]; (d) measured and simulated focal lengths as a function of wavelength for both polarizations[113]; (e) measured intensity profiles along with longitudinal directions at various incident wavelengths. The left panel is for x-polarized incidence and the right panel is for y-polarization incidence[113]; (f) near-infrared achromatic metalens array for multiparameter detection[115]; (g) measured intensity profiles under incidence of XLP and LCP light[115]

    图 5  基于机器学习的微纳光子学器件设计。(a)可见光波段消色差多阶衍射透镜[119];(b)二分搜索算法流程[119];(c)逆向设计神经网络[124];(d)透镜型偏振分光超构表面[124];(e)端到端的统计机器学习框架[126];(f)多频率点透镜型偏振分光超构表面的仿真和实验效果[126]

    Figure 5.  Metasurface design based on machine learning. (a) Visible chromatic multilevel diffractive lens[119]; (b) flow chart of the direct binary search algorithm[119]; (c) inverse design network[124]; (d) polarization splitting metalens[124]; (e) end-to-end statistical machine learning framework[126]; (f) simulated and measured results of four-frequency polarization splitting metalenses[126]

    图 6  焦距动态可调超构透镜。(a)基于柔性基底的动态可调超构透镜[136];(b)纵向间距可调的超构透镜组,原理示意图(左)、器件的光学显微镜图像(右上)、两超构透镜键合示意图(右下)[138];(c)液晶浸润实现焦点动态调制[141];(d)基于超低损耗相变材料Sb2S3的近红外热调控变焦超构透镜[143];(e)环向拉伸实现焦距动态可调偏振分光超构透镜;(f)器件焦距和能量透射率随单元周期的变化曲线;(g)不同单元周期下电场能量随纵轴方向的变化曲线

    Figure 6.  Metalens with dynamically tunable focal length. (a) Dynamically tunable metasurface based on a flexible substrate[136]; (b) a group of metasurfaces with adjustable longitudinal spacing, schematic diagram (left), optical microscopy image of device (top right), illustration of the bonding of two metasurfaces (bottom right)[138]; (c) dynamically tuning the focal length through liquid crystal infiltration[141]; (d) near-infrared thermally modulated varifocal metalens based on a low-losses phase change material Sb2S3[143]; (e) polarization splitting metalens with a dynamically tunable focal length by circumferential stretching; (f) the variation curves of focal length and transmission with unit period; (g) the variation curves of the electric field intensity with the longitudinal direction at different unit periods

    表  1  本节详细阐述的超构表面特性比较

    Table  1.   Features comparison of elaborated metasurfaces in this section

    Work byOperation
    Bandwidth
    Energy
    Efficiency
    Working
    Mode
    Materials
    Involved
    Fabrication
    Method
    Functional
    Type
    Pors et al.
    (2015)[84]
    700-1000 nm≈50%reflectionAu,SiO2EBL + lift-
    off + EBD
    PSMG
    Shaltout et al. (2015)[85]1.2-1.7 μm<40%reflectionAu,Al2O3EBL + lift-
    off +EBD
    PSMG
    Boroviks et al. (2017)[86]750-950 nm≈65%reflectionAu,SiO2EBL + lift-
    off + EBD
    PSML
    Khorasaninejad et al. (2016)[92]visible<45%transmissionTiO2,SiO2EBL + lift-
    off + ALD
    PSML
    Yang et al. (2018)[93]1550 nm≈28%transmissionSi,SiO2EBL + ICP etchingPFMLA
    Arbabi et al. (2018)[101]850 nm60%-65%transmissionα-Si,SiO2EBL + lift-
    off + RIE
    PSMLA
    Yan et al.
    (2019)[103]
    10.6 μm≈53%transmissionSiLDW + ICP etchingPSML
    Rubin et al. (2019)[105]visible>50%transmissionTiO2,SiO2EBL + lift-
    off + ALD
    PSMG
    Ren et al.
    (2022)[104]
    530 nm≈54%transmissionTiO2,SiO2EBL + lift-
    off + ALD
    PSML
    Abbreviations: Electron Beam Lithography, EBL; Electron Beam Deposition, EBD; Atomic Layer Deposition, ALD; Inductively Coupling Plasma, ICP; Reactive Ion etching, RIE; Laser Direct Writing, LDW; Polarization splitting metagrating, PSMG; Polarization splitting metalens, PSML; Polarization filtering metalens array, PFMLA; Polarization splitting metalens array, PSMLA.
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-11-16
  • 修回日期:  2022-12-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-02-07

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