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激光诱导击穿光谱技术相关物理机制研究进展

刘瑞斌 殷允嵩

刘瑞斌, 殷允嵩. 激光诱导击穿光谱技术相关物理机制研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2024, 17(1): 19-37. doi: 10.37188/CO.2023-0019
引用本文: 刘瑞斌, 殷允嵩. 激光诱导击穿光谱技术相关物理机制研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2024, 17(1): 19-37. doi: 10.37188/CO.2023-0019
LIU Rui-bin, YIN Yun-song. Research progress on the related physical mechanism of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy[J]. Chinese Optics, 2024, 17(1): 19-37. doi: 10.37188/CO.2023-0019
Citation: LIU Rui-bin, YIN Yun-song. Research progress on the related physical mechanism of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy[J]. Chinese Optics, 2024, 17(1): 19-37. doi: 10.37188/CO.2023-0019

激光诱导击穿光谱技术相关物理机制研究进展

doi: 10.37188/CO.2023-0019
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划资助项目(No. 2018YFC2001100)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘瑞斌(1977—),男,河北承德人,博士,教授,博士生导师,2007年于中国科学院物理研究所获得博士学位,主要从事激光光谱学应用、微爆模拟器方面的研究。E-mail:liusir@bit.edu.cn

    殷允嵩(1999—),男,安徽宿州人,硕士,2023年于北京理工大学获得硕士学位,主要从事激光光谱学应用方面的研究。E-mail:song13965347071@163.com

  • 中图分类号: O433.1;O433.4

Research progress on the related physical mechanism of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

Funds: Supported by the National Key Research and Development Project (No. 2018YFC2001100)
More Information
  • 摘要:

    激光诱导击穿光谱技术(Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,LIBS)是利用强脉冲激光与物质相互作用所产生的等离子体光谱来实现对物质组成元素定性和定量分析的一种新方法。在脉冲激光诱导等离子体的过程中,不同的激光参数(能量、脉宽、波长)、检测过程中的环境条件以及材料本身的特性等,对激光诱导等离子体的物理机制都有不同程度的影响,进而影响LIBS定量分析的结果。本文综述了现阶段LIBS技术中包括LIBS基本原理、激光参数区别、环境和材料特性差异所涉及的物理机制。为深入理解激光与物质相互作用、提升LIBS检测能力提供了依据。

     

  • 图 1  共线型、正交型以及交叉型双脉冲激光配置图[32](激光1先入射激光2后入射)(改编自文献[32])

    Figure 1.  Collinear, orthogonal and crossed dual-pulse laser configurations[32] (laser 2 is incident after laser 1) (Adapted from Ref. [32])

    图 2  各种二级过程的时间尺度[31] (改编自文献[31])

    Figure 2.  Time scale of the various secondary processes[31] (Adapted from Ref. [31])

    图 3  等离子体冲击波前沿位置(R)随时间变化的Log(R)-log(T)图[71]

    Figure 3.  Log(R)-log(T) plot of plasma shock front position (R) as a function of time[71]. Reprinted with permission from Ref.[71] ©Journal of Laser Applications.

    图 4  在激光能量为50 mJ、70 mJ和95 mJ时,VO的等离子体温度(Te)与采集延时(td)的函数关系[72]

    Figure 4.  The plasma temperature (Te) of VO as a function of acquisition time delay (td) when laser energy is 50 mJ, 70 mJ, and 95 mJ [72]. Reprinted with permission from Ref.[72]© Journal of Atomic and Molecular Physics.

    图 5  在激光能量为50 mJ、70 mJ和95 mJ时,V2O3的电子密度(Ne)与采集延时(td)的函数关系[72]

    Figure 5.  The electron density (Ne) of V2O3 as a function of acquisition time delay (td) when laser energy is 50 mJ, 70 mJ, and 95 mJ[72]. Reprinted with permission from Ref.[72] ©Journal of Atomic and Molecular Physics

    表  1  LIBS定量分析性能的物理机制影响因素及受影响特性

    Table  1.   Influencing factors and affected properties of physical mechanisms for LIBS quantitative analysis performance

    影响因素受影响特性
    双脉冲①等离子体的寿命,第一束激光剥蚀出的颗粒不仅被第一束激光产生的等离子体激发,还被第二束激光产生的等离子体再次激发,等离子体寿命被延长;②电子温度,第一束激光产生的等离子体对样品进行加热,使得第二束激光剥蚀量增加,电子温度升高;③样品表面气体环境密度,第一束激光产生的高温和等离子体的膨胀使样品表面产生一个大气密度较低的区域,第二束激光在此区域内对剥蚀颗粒进行激发可以获得更好的信号强度
    脉冲宽度①在相同的延迟时间下,等离子温度会随激光脉冲宽度的增加而升高;②在相同的延迟时间下ns脉冲激光的谱线强度比fs脉冲激光的谱线强度更高;③对于fs激光脉冲,烧蚀过程是直接从固体向蒸汽(或固向等离子体)转变,不存在热传导过程;对于ps激光脉冲,激光烧蚀伴随着电子热传导和目标内熔融区的形成;对于ns激光脉冲,会产生相对较大的熔融材料层
    激光能量①在同一延迟时间下,激光能量越高等离子体温度和电子数密度越大;②随着激光能量的增加,吸收呈指数增长,在高能量下达到饱和;③在较高能量时,烧蚀质量增加,等离子体内部具有更高的能量而呈半球状向外膨胀;而能量较低时,烧蚀质量较小,等离子体趋向于盘状
    环境气体①环境气体对等离子体的屏蔽效应影响很大,相比于空气环境氩气产生较高的等离子体温度,高的电子密度,消融速率较低,被探测元素的辐射强度较高;②在低的环境压力下,消融蒸汽可以自由的扩散,等离子体外部比内部的温度低,因为外部损失的能量较大。当提高压力时,由于环境气体限制了能量损失,使能量扩散更均一
    靶材性质①在只考虑金属样品时,基体效应对等离子体参数的影响很弱;②样品的物理性质和结构以及组分都会对等离子体产生影响,并且烧蚀质量与靶材硬度成反比。③靶材温度也会影响光谱强度和等离子体性质,谱强度随着温度的升高而增强
    等离子体寿命①等离子体寿命的变化会影响光谱信号的宽度和强度。当等离子体寿命较短时,产生的光谱信号较窄且信号强度较弱,而当等离子体寿命较长时,产生的光谱信号将更宽且信号强度更大
    延时时间和积分时间①当延时时间较短时,等离子体没有充分形成,所得到的光谱信号较小;而当延时时间过长时,等离子体可能因为散射或扩散而消失,同样会降低光谱信号的强度。②较短的积分时间可能会导致噪声的增加,而较长的积分时间则会提高信号质量,提高光谱信号的信噪比,但会降低测量速度
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