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空间调制微型傅里叶变换红外光谱仪研究

梁静秋 梁中翥 吕金光 秦余欣 田超 王维彪

梁静秋, 梁中翥, 吕金光, 秦余欣, 田超, 王维彪. 空间调制微型傅里叶变换红外光谱仪研究[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2015, 8(2): 277-298. doi: 10.3788/CO.20150802.0277
引用本文: 梁静秋, 梁中翥, 吕金光, 秦余欣, 田超, 王维彪. 空间调制微型傅里叶变换红外光谱仪研究[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2015, 8(2): 277-298. doi: 10.3788/CO.20150802.0277
LIANG Jing-qiu, LIANG Zhong-zhu, LÜ Jin-guang, QIN Yu-xin, TIAN Chao, WANG Wei-biao. Micro spatial modulation Fourier transform infrared spectrometer[J]. Chinese Optics, 2015, 8(2): 277-298. doi: 10.3788/CO.20150802.0277
Citation: LIANG Jing-qiu, LIANG Zhong-zhu, LÜ Jin-guang, QIN Yu-xin, TIAN Chao, WANG Wei-biao. Micro spatial modulation Fourier transform infrared spectrometer[J]. Chinese Optics, 2015, 8(2): 277-298. doi: 10.3788/CO.20150802.0277

空间调制微型傅里叶变换红外光谱仪研究

doi: 10.3788/CO.20150802.0277
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(No.61027010)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    梁静秋(1962—),女,研究员,博士生导师。1984年于吉林大学获学士学位。2003年于中科院长春光学精密机械与物理研究所获博士学位。1984年~1993年从事半导体材料、工艺、微波器件及光电子器件研究。自1994年开始,一直从事微光机电系统(MOEMS)及微结构光学领域的科研工作。作为负责人主持了国家自然科学基金、国家攀登计划、国家863计划及吉林省科技发展计划项目等研究课题29项,作为骨干参与完成课题20余项,研究内容包括MOEMS微型干涉仪、傅里叶变换光谱仪、可编程波长信道选择器等微小光学系统研究,微型传感器、驱动器、微型可调谐红外滤光器、微型LED阵列、高能X射线聚焦组合透镜、光开关、光纤图像分割器等器件研究以及三维微细加工技术研究。发表学术论文200余篇;以第一发明人获得授权的中国发明专利22项,实用新型专利13项,并被评为2006年吉林省知识产权工作先进个人;培养博士、硕士研究生30余名。

  • 中图分类号: O433.1

Micro spatial modulation Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

  • 摘要: 针对目前环境、医疗、空间、气象、军事及安全等领域对傅里叶变换红外光谱仪微小型化、轻量化及固态化的迫切需求,提出并研究了一种以MOEMS多级微反射镜为核心器件的空间调制微型傅里叶变换红外光谱仪。在理论研究方面,建立了空间调制微型傅里叶变换红外光谱仪的物理模型,探究了该系统的光场分割与空间采样的光学原理;分析了多级微反射镜的衍射效应,提出了一种通过补边抑制衍射噪声抑制方法;进行了多级微反射镜采样误差的分析,并提出了基于最小二乘拟合的修正算法;通过对光源空间相干性、准直系统像差以及入射光场均匀性的分析,确定了光学系统的总体设计指标;通过对多级微反射镜基片加工精度、分束器材料色散特性和膜层透射效率等的计算分析,确定了干涉系统的设计方法与技术参数。在核心技术方面,提出了两个多级微反射镜的3种制作方法,分析了制作误差的来源及对系统性能的影响。通过工艺设计及实验条件探索,分别采用电铸法、真空镀膜法以及斜面倾角叠片法制作了两个多级微反射镜。在系统设计方面,进行了红外准直与缩束系统的光学设计,对整体光机系统进行了建模仿真,分析了杂散光噪声的来源。在图谱处理方面,利用过零采样方式,通过图像分割算法,获取了干涉图采样序列;通过对干涉图序列的插值、补零、延拓与卷积方法,完成了光谱相位误差的校正;通过离散傅里叶变换解调,实现了由干涉图像到信号光谱的数据反演。最后研究了系统光机整体的集成组装技术,并对原理样机进行了实验测试。本文研制的空间调制微型傅里叶变换红外光谱仪的特点在于:取消了动镜驱动机构与采样控制机构,具有微小型与轻量化的特点;干涉图的采样由多级微反射镜完成,其空间采样的方式增加了系统的稳定性与可靠性,实时采样的特点增加了系统的快速性与有效性;多级微反射镜阵列采用MOEMS工艺技术制作,增加了系统的采样精度。该光谱仪系统的结构及制作方法具有自主知识产权,并具有广阔的应用前景。

     

  • 图 1  微型空间调制FTIR结构示意图

    Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of micro spatial modulation Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

    图 2  微型空间调制FTIR工作原理示意图

    Figure 2.  Sketch map of working principle of micro-FTIR

    图 3  3×3模式光程差阵列与干涉图像示意图

    Figure 3.  Chart of OPDs array and interferogram image in 3×3 mode

    图 4  光谱信噪比与台阶宽度的关系曲线

    Figure 4.  Relationship curve between spectrum SNR and step width

    图 5  光谱复原质量函数与衍射距离的关系曲线

    Figure 5.  Relationship curves between the spectrum quality and diffraction distance

    图 6  光谱相关度与标准偏差的关系曲线

    Figure 6.  Relationship curve between spectrum correlation and standard deviation

    图 7  不同光谱复原算法反演的复原光谱

    Figure 7.  Recovered spectra reversed by different methods

    图 8  立体角0.2 rad对应的复原光谱图

    Figure 8.  Recovered spectrum with solid angles 0.2 rad

    图 9  光束发散角与光程差之间的关系曲线

    Figure 9.  Relationship curve between divergence angle and OPD

    图 10  附加位相与光程差之间的关系曲线

    Figure 10.  Relationship curve between additive phase and OPD

    图 11  干涉图调制函数与光程差的关系曲线

    Figure 11.  Relationship between interferogram modulation and OPD

    图 12  多级微反射镜制作流程图

    Figure 12.  Fabrication flow chart of micro multi-step mirrors

    图 13  电铸工艺制作的含有2级、4级、8级和16级台阶结构的多级微反射镜

    Figure 13.  Structure of micro multi-step mirrors with 2 steps, 4 steps, 8 steps and 16 steps by electroform

    图 14  电铸工艺制作的第一多级微反射镜照片

    Figure 14.  Picture of the first micro multi-step by electroform

    图 15  台阶形貌图

    Figure 15.  One step profile of micro multi-step mirrors by AFM

    图 16  多级微反射镜台阶高度测试图

    Figure 16.  Steps height tested by KLA-Tencor P-16+profile

    图 17  真空镀膜法的制作的台阶形貌图

    Figure 17.  One step profile of micro multi-step mirrors

    图 18  多级微反射镜台阶高度测试

    Figure 18.  Steps height tested by KLA-Tencor P-16+profile

    图 19  多级微反射镜粗糙度测试图

    Figure 19.  Steps roughness tested by WYKO interferometer

    图 20  斜面法制作多级微反射镜示意图

    Figure 20.  Fabrication method of micro multi-step mirrors by inclined plane method

    图 21  单个基片的厚度偏差与角度偏差

    Figure 21.  Thickness deviation and angle deviation of single chip

    图 22  光谱复原质量函数的统计直方图

    Figure 22.  Probability distribution of spectrum quality function

    图 23  光谱复原质量函数随厚度偏差与角度偏差的变化

    Figure 23.  Relationship of spectrum quality versus thickness deviation and angle deviation

    图 24  第二多级微反射镜的照片

    Figure 24.  Picture of the second micro step mirror fabricated by inclined plane method

    图 25  阶梯高度测试曲线

    Figure 25.  Steps height test curve

    图 26  斜面倾角叠片法制作的多级微反射镜粗糙度测试图

    Figure 26.  Steps roughness tested by WYKO interferometer

    图 27  透射效率的频率特性曲线

    Figure 27.  Frequency character curve of transmission efficiency

    图 28  透射效率与光强反射率之间的关系曲面图

    Figure 28.  Surface plots of transmission efficiency with intensity reflectance R1 and R2

    图 29  光程差偏移量的频率特性曲线

    Figure 29.  Frequency character curve of OPD increment

    图 30  相位延迟的频率特性曲线

    Figure 30.  Frequency character curve of phase delay

    图 31  相位误差与光程差之间的关系曲线

    Figure 31.  Relationship curve between phase error and optical path difference

    图 32  分束器与补偿板的光强透过率曲线

    Figure 32.  Transmittance curves of beam splitter and compensating plate

    图 33  准直系统的结构图

    Figure 33.  Optical layout of collimation system

    图 34  准直系统的横向像差

    Figure 34.  Transverse aberration of collimation system

    图 35  准直系统的波像差

    Figure 35.  Wavefront aberration of collimation system

    图 36  准直系统的传递函数

    Figure 36.  MTF of collimation system

    图 37  缩束系统的光学结构图

    Figure 37.  Optical layout of constricted system

    图 38  缩束系统的横向像差

    Figure 38.  Transverse aberration of constricted system

    图 39  缩束系统的点列图

    Figure 39.  Spot diagram of constricted system

    图 40  缩束系统的传递函数

    Figure 40.  MTF of constricted system

    图 41  微型空间调制FTIR的结构建模

    Figure 41.  Model of micro-FTIR in simulation environment

    图 42  不同光阑口径下点源透过率随离轴角变化

    Figure 42.  PST versus off-field angle at different stop diameter

    图 43  干涉图像

    Figure 43.  Interferogram image

    图 44  干涉图序列与光程差序列的对应关系

    Figure 44.  Interferogram sequence versus OPD

    图 45  利用不同的相位校正方法反演的光谱

    Figure 45.  Recovered spectrum reversed by different phase correction methods

    图 46  微型傅里叶变换光谱仪二维结构布局

    Figure 46.  Mechanical layout of micro-FTIR

    图 47  干涉系统坐标示意图

    Figure 47.  Sketch map of interferometric system

    图 48  测试得到的干涉图样

    Figure 48.  Interferogram image from micro-FTIR

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2014-12-11
  • 录用日期:  2015-02-15
  • 刊出日期:  2015-04-25

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