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光镊技术在气溶胶物理化学表征中的应用

蔡宸 张韫宏

蔡宸, 张韫宏. 光镊技术在气溶胶物理化学表征中的应用[J]. 中国光学, 2017, 10(5): 641-655. doi: 10.3788/CO.20171005.0641
引用本文: 蔡宸, 张韫宏. 光镊技术在气溶胶物理化学表征中的应用[J]. 中国光学, 2017, 10(5): 641-655. doi: 10.3788/CO.20171005.0641
CAI Chen, ZHANG Yun-hong. Application of optical tweezers technology in physical chemistry characterization of aerosol[J]. Chinese Optics, 2017, 10(5): 641-655. doi: 10.3788/CO.20171005.0641
Citation: CAI Chen, ZHANG Yun-hong. Application of optical tweezers technology in physical chemistry characterization of aerosol[J]. Chinese Optics, 2017, 10(5): 641-655. doi: 10.3788/CO.20171005.0641

光镊技术在气溶胶物理化学表征中的应用

doi: 10.3788/CO.20171005.0641
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 91544223

国家自然科学基金项目 21473009

详细信息
    作者简介:

    蔡宸(1989-), 男, 北京人, 博士, 主要从事光镊技术与大气气溶胶物理化学方面的研究。E-mail:chen.cai.mascappa@qq.com

    张韫宏(1964-),男,黑龙江伊春人,博士,教授、博士生导师,主要从事大气气溶胶微观物理化学过程的分子光谱学方面的研究

    通讯作者:

    张韫宏, E-mail:yhz@bit.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O439;O648.18

Application of optical tweezers technology in physical chemistry characterization of aerosol

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 91544223

National Natural Science Foundation of China 21473009

More Information
  • 摘要: 有机气溶胶的热/动力学研究是多学科交叉的前沿研究领域,其核心问题主要是非理想混合包括挥发性、液-液相分离、非平衡传质动力学等,精确测量这些过程相关理化参数是目前研究的瓶颈。光镊系统可以悬浮气溶胶单颗粒,获得高信噪比受激拉曼光谱,在研究气溶胶物理化学性质与其大气效应中具有独到优势。被广泛用于有机及其与无机混合体系气溶胶的吸湿性、挥发性、水传质动力学、液-液相分离过程研究中。本文综述了激光悬浮气溶胶单颗粒技术的研究进展,主要包括光镊技术的原理和技术手段,以及在气溶胶关键物理化学参数测量中的应用。通过光镊系统,一方面可以获得重要理化参数的精确结果,另一方面可以对实际环境中悬浮液滴的状态进行模拟测量,从而为大气科学的研究与污染治理提供重要支撑。
  • 图  1  (a)散射力:反射的光束产生方向相反的动量构成了沿激光方向的合力,当颗粒不在光束的中心时,光束强度的变化会产生使颗粒向中间靠拢的合力;(b)梯度力:光束发生折射产生水平方向的合力,当颗粒在光束的中心时,光束产生的合力正对着颗粒[27-28]

    Figure  1.  (a)Scattering force: reflection of rays produces momentum in the opposite direction, resulting in a net force along the direction of laser propagation. (b)Gradient force:refraction of rays produces momentum in the opposite direction, resulting in a force vertical to the direction of laser propagation, when the bead is laterally centered in the beam, the net force points toward the focal point of the beam[27-28]

    图  2  单光束光镊-拉曼系统示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of single beam optical tweezers-Raman spectrograph setup

    图  3  悬浮单颗粒的全反射效应(a)与受激拉曼光谱峰位(b)

    Figure  3.  Total reflection effect in levitated aerosol particle(a) and stimulated Raman peak position(b)

    图  4  不同湿度阶跃(a)下的氯化钠液滴受激拉曼光谱峰位(b),米氏散射拟合获得的颗粒半径(c)与体相折射率(d)

    Figure  4.  Time dependent RH(a), wavelength of WGMs(b), radius(c) and bulk phase RI(d) of a levitated NaCl aqueous droplet

    图  5  悬浮单颗粒在气相环境中的吸湿与挥发示意图

    Figure  5.  Hygroscopicity and volatility of a levitated single droplet

    图  6  柠檬酸实验湿度,尺寸,摩尔浓度和折射率数据(a)与相对应的r2dCOrg/dt~rdr/dt象限图(b)和吸湿性质线(c)

    Figure  6.  Time dependent on RH, radius, molarity and bulk phase RI(a) of a citric acid aqueous droplet with correspond correlation plot(b) and hygroscopic line(c)

    图  7  SVOC样品饱和蒸气压实验结果汇总

    Figure  7.  Pure component vapour pressure results of typical SVOC species

    图  8  α-蒎烯臭氧化二级有机产物-硫酸铵-水气溶胶在加湿过程(实线)和去湿过程(虚线)不同RH对应的质量增长因子[82]

    Figure  8.  Mass growth factor of α-pinene ozonolysis products-(NH4)2SO4-water droplet in humidifying process(solid line) and dehumidifying process(dashed line) under different RHs[82]

    图  9  (a)模间距变化判定相分离发生的实例;(b)利用模消失现象判定相分离发生的实例;(c)利用拟合误差升高现象判定相分离发生的实例

    Figure  9.  (a)Illustration of LLPS with changed mode offset, corresponds to core shell structure; (b)Illustration of LLPS with quenching of mode, corresponds to partial engulfing structure; (c)Illustration of LLPS with increasing fitting error, corresponds to formation of complex state in the droplet

    图  10  不同比例聚乙二醇/硫酸铵体系的相分离RH。灰色阴影表示Ciobanu等[60]的研究结果。前人研究中体相溶液实验,显微镜加湿实验和显微镜去湿实验的结果分别用红色、绿色和蓝色实心方块表示。对应模间距变化判据、模消失判和拟合误差上升判据的结果分别用红色、绿色和蓝色空心方块表示

    Figure  10.  Phase-separation relative humidities observed from the PEG:AS single-particle measurements. The shaded region is the two liquid phase-one-liquid phase boundary from the phase diagram presented by Ciobanu et al.[60] with the envelope indicating the range of uncertainty. Filled blue, green, and red squares indicate liquid-liquid phase separation RHs(SRHs) measured from microscope drying experiments, microscope wetting experiments, and bulk phase experiments, respectively. The red, green, and blue open squares show the averaged data from all phase separation RHs identified by CMO, QM, and IFE signatures, respectively. Error bars for this work show the range of SRHs obtained at each composition

    图  11  液滴在干燥和加湿过程中的状态显微图像

    Figure  11.  Bright-field image of droplet in dehumidifying-humidifying cycle

    图  12  不同RH下MgSO4液滴半径变化半衰期与RH变化半衰期比例。空心三角形表示红外实验结果,实心圆表示光镊实验结果。如图中的图例所示,(a)中不同颜色表示不同是半衰期比例,(b)中不同的颜色表示不同的RH变化量

    Figure  12.  Ratio between half-life of MgSO4 droplet radius stage and half-life of its corresponding RH stage. FTIR measurement results and optical tweezers measurement results are shown with opened triangles and solid circles, respectively. Mapped colours in (a) and (b) represents t1/2, radii/t1/2, RH and ΔRH, respectively

    表  1  不同比例聚乙二醇/硫酸铵体系的相分离RH结果

    Table  1.   SRH results of PEG/AS system with different PEG:AS ratio

    OIR 平均相分离RH 相分离RH范围
    1:1 91.5 90.9~92.8
    1:3 93.2 92.6~93.8
    3:1 88.9 86.4 ~91.5
    1:9 89.2 88.6~89.8
    9:1 90.5 88.3~93.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同RH变化范围对应的体相水分扩散系数

    Table  2.   Diffusion coefficient of water in droplet bulk phase at different RH scales

    过程 起始RH 最终RH 起始半径R0/μm Dap/10-16 m2/s
    水分挥发过程 39.9 28.7 3.85 1.67±0.15
    28.2 17.0 3.73 1.80±0.15
    16.6 5.8 3.73 1.93±0.17
    水分凝聚过程 29.9 40.2 3.84 6.42±0.50
    17.7 29.1 3.73 1.61±0.13
    4.6 16.7 3.71 0.97±0.08
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-04-11
  • 修回日期:  2017-05-13
  • 刊出日期:  2017-10-01

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