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无扫描激光三维成像雷达研究进展及趋势分析

卜禹铭 杜小平 曾朝阳 赵继广 宋一铄

卜禹铭, 杜小平, 曾朝阳, 赵继广, 宋一铄. 无扫描激光三维成像雷达研究进展及趋势分析[J]. 中国光学, 2018, 11(5): 711-727. doi: 10.3788/CO.20181105.0711
引用本文: 卜禹铭, 杜小平, 曾朝阳, 赵继广, 宋一铄. 无扫描激光三维成像雷达研究进展及趋势分析[J]. 中国光学, 2018, 11(5): 711-727. doi: 10.3788/CO.20181105.0711
BU Yu-ming, DU Xiao-ping, ZENG Zhao-yang, ZHAO Ji-guang, SONG Yi-shuo. Research progress and trend analysis of non-scanning laser 3D imaging radar[J]. Chinese Optics, 2018, 11(5): 711-727. doi: 10.3788/CO.20181105.0711
Citation: BU Yu-ming, DU Xiao-ping, ZENG Zhao-yang, ZHAO Ji-guang, SONG Yi-shuo. Research progress and trend analysis of non-scanning laser 3D imaging radar[J]. Chinese Optics, 2018, 11(5): 711-727. doi: 10.3788/CO.20181105.0711

无扫描激光三维成像雷达研究进展及趋势分析

doi: 10.3788/CO.20181105.0711
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金 61805284

详细信息
    作者简介:

    卜禹铭(1993-), 男, 四川成都人, 硕士研究生, 主要从事空间目标监视方面的研究。E-mail:htgcdxbym@126.com

    杜小平(1966—),女,河北昌黎人,博士,教授,博士生导师,1999年于国防科技大学获得硕士学位,2004年于北京理工大学获得博士学位,主要从事空间态势感知、目标光学测量方面的研究。E-mail:htgcdxdxp401@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TN958.98

Research progress and trend analysis of non-scanning laser 3D imaging radar

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation 61805284

More Information
  • 摘要: 无扫描激光三维成像雷达具有体积小、质量轻、高分辨率、高精度和对动态目标无失真成像等优点,目前已成为许多国家研究的重点和热点。本文阐述了闪光式、光子计数、增益调制型等7种无扫描激光三维成像雷达体制和距离选通成像技术的基本原理,追踪并归纳了其研究进展,对比分析了各体制的技术优劣,并从核心器件角度分析了发展趋势。结论如下:采用2D传感器在光学层面进行时间信息转换实现三维成像的方法具有高分辨率、高能量利用率和高信噪比等特点,在航天、测绘、军事、民用等领域具有突出优势和应用前景。
  • 图  1  无扫描激光三维成像雷达分类

    Figure  1.  Scanerless laser 3D imaging radar classification

    图  2  InGaAs LM-APD结构图

    Figure  2.  Structure diagram of InGaAs LM-APD

    图  3  美国DRS公司生产的HgCdTe LM-APDs截面图和俯视图

    Figure  3.  Cross-sectional and top view of HgCdTe LM-APDs from US DRS company

    图  4  光子计数三维成像激光雷达原理框图

    Figure  4.  Schematic black diagram of photon counting three-dimensional imaging radar

    图  5  32×32 InGaAs GM-APD结构图

    Figure  5.  Structure diagram of 32×32 InGaAs GM-APD

    图  6  双通道单增-恒定增益调制成像激光雷达工作原理图

    Figure  6.  Working principle diagram of dual-channel single-gain-constant gain modulation imaging laser radar

    图  7  实验场景图和目标距离图像

    Figure  7.  Experimental scene graph and target distance image

    图  8  浙大图书馆的距离灰度图

    Figure  8.  Gayscale of Zhejiang University Library

    图  9  锯齿波调制测距原理图

    Figure  9.  Sawtooth modulation ranging principle diagram

    图  10  FMCW三维成像激光雷达系统原理框图

    Figure  10.  Principle block diagram of FMCW three-dimensional imaging lidar system

    图  11  基于GM-APD的FMCW激光雷达测距系统原理框图

    Figure  11.  Principle block diagram of FMCW kidar ranging system based on GM-APD

    图  12  基于ICCD的鉴相式激光测距原理框图

    Figure  12.  Principle block diagram of ICCD-based phase-discrimination laser ranging

    图  13  LDRI对空间站表面成的3D图像

    Figure  13.  LDRI 3D image of the space station surface

    图  14  偏振调制激光测距原理框图

    Figure  14.  Principle block diagram of polarization modulation laser ranging

    图  15  偏振激光三维成像图

    Figure  15.  Polarized laser three-dimensional imaging

    图  16  两种偏振调制体制的成像效果对比图

    Figure  16.  Comparison of two kinds of polarization modulation imaging system

    图  17  1 km处的建筑物距离图

    Figure  17.  Building distance map at 1 km

    图  18  条纹管成像原理框图

    Figure  18.  Striped tube imaging principle block diagram

    图  19  多缝条纹管激光雷达原理图

    Figure  19.  Schematic of multi-stitch laser radar

    图  20  条纹管激光雷达对地面场景三维成像图

    Figure  20.  Striped tube laser radar on the ground scene three-dimensional imaging

    图  21  待测目标的(a)实物图、(b)强度像、(c)偏振像、(d)融合图像

    Figure  21.  Physical map of the target (a)under test image, (b)intensity image, (c)polarization image, (d)fusion image

    图  22  距离选通成像的原理图

    Figure  22.  Schematic of gated imaging

    图  23  系统实物图

    Figure  23.  Physical map of system

    图  24  三维成像激光雷达的传感器分类

    Figure  24.  Sensor classification of 3D imaging radar

    表  1  FOPEN三维成像激光雷达性能参数

    Table  1.   Performance parameters of FOPEN 3D imaging laser radar

    Project Performance
    Laser 1 550 nm, 1 W
    Received lens Aperture:35 mm
    Focal length:50 mm
    Detector 640×512 InGaAs EBAPS;
    Ranging Accuracy 25 m:3 cm
    FoV 35°×35°
    Frame rate >1 Hz
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  7种无扫描激光成像雷达系统部分性能比较

    Table  2.   Performance comparison of seven scanless laser imaging radar systems

    Based on LM-APDs Photon counting Gain modulation
    (Dual channel)
    FMCW Phase ranging Polarization modulation Stripe tube
    (Multiple-slit)
    Source Pulse Pulse Pulse CW CW Pulse Pulse
    Range <5 km >10 km <3 km <1 km <3 km >1 km <6 km
    Ranging Accuracy cm~m cm~m cm~m mm~dm mm~m mm~dm cm~m
    Range hole Exist Exist Exist No No Exist Exist
    Range ambiguity No No No No Exist No No
    Imaging speed Fast Low Fast Low Low Fast Fast
    Resolution 256×256 256×256 ICCD EBAPS ICCD Detector Detector
    Motion artifact No Exist No Exist Exist No No
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-12-12
  • 修回日期:  2018-02-10
  • 刊出日期:  2018-10-01

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