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大型复杂曲面三维形貌测量及应用研究进展

马国庆 刘丽 于正林 曹国华

马国庆, 刘丽, 于正林, 曹国华. 大型复杂曲面三维形貌测量及应用研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2019, 12(2): 214-228. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0214
引用本文: 马国庆, 刘丽, 于正林, 曹国华. 大型复杂曲面三维形貌测量及应用研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2019, 12(2): 214-228. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0214
MA Guo-qing, LIU Li, YU Zheng-lin, CAO Guo-hua. Application and development of three-dimensional profile measurement for large and complex surface[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(2): 214-228. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0214
Citation: MA Guo-qing, LIU Li, YU Zheng-lin, CAO Guo-hua. Application and development of three-dimensional profile measurement for large and complex surface[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(2): 214-228. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0214

大型复杂曲面三维形貌测量及应用研究进展

doi: 10.3788/CO.20191202.0214
基金项目: 

国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划)资助项目 2015AA7060112

吉林省科技发展计划资助项目 20160204016GX

吉林省省级产业创新专项资金资助项目 2016C088

吉林省省级产业创新专项资金资助项目 2017C045-2

长春理工大学青年科学基金资助项目 XQNJJ-2016-04

详细信息
    作者简介:

    马国庆(1988-), 男, 吉林德惠人, 博士研究生, 讲师, 2014年于哈尔滨工业大学获得硕士学位, 现为长春理工大学机电工程学院讲师, 主要从事机器人三维形貌测量方面的研究。E-mail:magq@cust.edu.cn

    刘丽(1988-), 女, 吉林德惠人, 博士研究生, 实验员, 2015年于长春理工大学获得硕士学位, 现为长春理工大学机电工程学院实验员, 主要从事机电系统控制方面的研究。E-mail:liuli2016@cust.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB92

Application and development of three-dimensional profile measurement for large and complex surface

Funds: 

National High Technology Research and Development Program of China(863 Program) 2015AA7060112

Jilin Scientific and Technological Development Program 20160204016GX

Jilin Provincial Special Funds for Industrial Innovation 2016C088

Jilin Provincial Special Funds for Industrial Innovation 2017C045-2

Young Scientist Fund of Changchun University of Science and Technology XQNJJ-2016-04

More Information
  • 摘要: 大型复杂曲面因为空间尺度大、结构复杂,因此对其进行测量和检测相对较困难,三维形貌测量技术分辨率高、数据获取速度快,为大型复杂曲面的偏差控制和逆向工程提供了技术保障。分析和综述了大型复杂曲面三维形貌测量及应用研究的进展,论述了目前实现大型复杂曲面三维形貌测量的手段,归纳和总结了目前以及未来几年可用大型复杂曲面三维形貌测量的设备和仪器的特点与应用场合,并对比分析了每种测量设备的优缺点,为正确和广泛应用三维形貌测量设备提供参考,重点介绍了三维点云获取方法及点云处理方法,对点云预处理方法、点云拼接方法所涉及的技术进行归纳总结。最后,对三维形貌测量技术的应用场合进行剖析,认为大型复杂曲面三维形貌测量将向着非接触、自动化方向发展,在发展过程中基于全局坐标的点云拼接、非贴点测量将成为研究的主要方向。

     

  • 图 1  龙门式三坐标测量机

    Figure 1.  Gantry CMM

    图 2  悬臂式三坐标测量机

    Figure 2.  Cantilever CMM

    图 3  关节式测量臂

    Figure 3.  Articulated measuring arm

    图 4  IGPS系统的组成

    Figure 4.  Composition of IGPS system

    图 5  IGPS激光发射器

    Figure 5.  IGPS laser transmitter

    图 6  激光跟踪仪及其专业附件

    Figure 6.  Laser tracker and professional attachments

    图 7  经纬仪

    Figure 7.  Theodolite

    图 8  全站仪

    Figure 8.  Total station

    图 9  激光雷达测量系统

    Figure 9.  Lidar measurement system

    图 10  V-STARS/S8摄影测量系统

    Figure 10.  V-STARS/S8 photogrammetry measurement system

    图 11  FMs机器人测量系统

    Figure 11.  FMs robot measuring system

    图 12  ATOS光学测量系统

    Figure 12.  ATOS optical measurement system

    表  1  国外摄影测量系统对比

    Table  1.   Contrast of foreign photogrammetry systems

    项目 Tritop DPA Inspect V-STARS
    相机及配件 可变焦的高分辨率数字摄像机,标定杆,编码标记点,标记点 超广角镜头,标准杆,十字参考坐标,编码标记点,圆点贴,磁力连接 INCA3相机,标准杆,反光编码点,Pro-SPOT
    相机标定方法 自标定 自标定 自标定
    测量要求 测量时不可改变相机参数 测量时不可改变相机参数 测量时不可改变相机参数
    一次测量范围 0.1~10 m 5 mm~20 m 5 mm~20 m
    测量精度 0.001~0.025 mm/m ±0.015 mm/m ±0.005 mm/m
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  测量设备优缺点对比

    Table  2.   Advantages and disadvantages of measuring equipments

    测量系统 接触测量 测量精度 精度范围 测量过程 测量速度 便携性 测量范围
    三坐标测量机 接触 最高 1~5 μm/m 逐点 3 m×10 m×2 m
    关节式测量臂 接触 最高 1~5 μm/m 逐点 0~4 m
    激光跟踪仪 非接触 5~10 μm/m 逐点 0~80 m
    经纬仪 非接触 10 μm/m 逐点 0~150 m
    全站仪 非接触 1 mm+1 μm 逐点 0~150 m
    激光雷达 非接触 5~10 μm/m 逐点 0~60 m
    IGPS 非接触 0.1 mm/m 逐点 0~20 m
    摄影系统 非接触 ±0.025 mm/m 非逐点 0.1~10 m
    机器人系统 非接触 0.05 mm/m 非逐点 0~5 m
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  三维形貌测量方法

    Table  3.   3D profile measurement methods

    方法序号 接触式 非接触方式
    声学 光学 电磁学
    相干法 非相干法
    被动式 主动式
    飞行时间法 三角法
    1 三坐标测量机 超声波测距 全息照相 立体视觉 脉冲制法 结构光(点、线) 核磁共振
    2 白光干涉 层去图形 幅度调制 莫尔法
    3 双波干涉 频率调制 光栅编码
    4 莫尔干涉 傅立叶变换
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-03-20
  • 修回日期:  2018-04-09
  • 刊出日期:  2019-04-01

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