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光栅精密位移测量技术发展综述

高旭 李舒航 马庆林 陈伟

高旭, 李舒航, 马庆林, 陈伟. 光栅精密位移测量技术发展综述[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2019, 12(4): 741-752. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191204.0741
引用本文: 高旭, 李舒航, 马庆林, 陈伟. 光栅精密位移测量技术发展综述[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2019, 12(4): 741-752. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191204.0741
GAO Xu, LI Shu-Hang, MA Qing-lin, CHEN Wei. Development of grating-based precise displacement measurement technology[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(4): 741-752. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191204.0741
Citation: GAO Xu, LI Shu-Hang, MA Qing-lin, CHEN Wei. Development of grating-based precise displacement measurement technology[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(4): 741-752. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191204.0741

光栅精密位移测量技术发展综述

doi: 10.3788/CO.20191204.0741
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金 51505078

吉林省科技厅优秀青年人才基金 20180520187JH

吉林省教育厅"十三五"科学技术项目基金 JJKH20190544KJ

中国博士后面上基金 2018M641778

详细信息
    作者简介:

    高旭(1987—),女,黑龙江青冈人,博士研究生,讲师,2009年于吉林大学获得学士学位,2014年于中国科学院长春光学精密机械与物理研究所获得博士学位,主要从事光电精密位移测量技术和光电传感器方面的研究。E-mail:gaox19870513@163.com

    李舒航(1995—),女,吉林长春人,硕士研究生,2018年于长春理工大学获得学士学位,主要从事光电精密位移测量技术方面的研究。E-mail:306746976@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: TP29

Development of grating-based precise displacement measurement technology

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 51505078

Outstanding Youth Fund of Jilin Science and Technology Department 20180520187JH

Jilin Provincial Department of Education "13th Five-Year" Science and Technology Project Fund JJKH20190544KJ

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project 2018M641778

More Information
  • 摘要: 精密测量是精密机械加工的基础,是制造行业中影响制造精度的决定性因素之一,在当代精密机械制造领域应用广泛。基于光栅的精密位移测量系统以其对环境要求小,测量分辨率高等优点,在精密位移测量领域占据重要位置。基于光栅的精密位移测量系统包括光学测量系统、信号接收、电子学细分及整体装调几部分。本文主要针对光学测量光路部分进行综述介绍。首先介绍了经典光栅干涉位移测量原理;其次,综述了基于光栅的精密位移测量系统的关键技术现状;再次,对比分析了几种最具有代表性的测量技术,总结其优缺点;最后,对基于光栅的精密位移测量技术进行展望,揭示其高精度、高分辨力、高鲁棒性、微型化、多维化、多技术融合的发展趋势。

     

  • 图 1  经典双光栅位移测量系统光学结构

    Figure 1.  Optical structure of classical double grating displacement measurement system

    图 2  单光栅位移测量系统光学结构

    Figure 2.  Optical structure of single grating displacement measurement system

    图 3  三光栅位移测量原理图

    Figure 3.  Schematic diagram of three-grating displacement measurement

    图 4  二维平面光栅编码器基本结构

    Figure 4.  Basic structure of two dimension planar grating encoder

    图 5  编码原理

    Figure 5.  Coding principle

    图 6  三维位移测量光路图

    Figure 6.  Light path of three dimension displacement measurement

    图 7  三维测量实验装置

    Figure 7.  Experimental device of three dimension measuring

    图 8  外差利特罗式光栅干涉仪位移测量系统原理

    Figure 8.  Principle of displacement measurement system for heterodyne Littrow interferometer

    图 9  时栅位移测量原理

    Figure 9.  Principle of time grating displacement measurement

    图 10  时间光栅传感器原理图

    Figure 10.  Time grating sensor schematic

    图 11  光纤光栅原理图

    Figure 11.  Schematic diagram of fiber grating

    图 12  光纤布拉格位移传感器

    Figure 12.  Fiber Bragg displacement sensor

    表  1  基于光栅的位移测量系统优缺点对照表

    Table  1.   The advantages and disadvantages of grating-based precision displacement measurement

    系统名称 研究单位 优点 缺点
    三光栅组合干涉仪 中国台湾元智大学哈尔滨工业大学 最佳组合位移误差在10 nm以内测量的相位是360度,对环境干扰具有较强的免疫力 误差会随着三光栅有效栅距的增加而增加
    基于两个平行光栅的二维位移测量系统 哈尔滨工业大学超精密光电仪器工程研究所 可测量光栅平面的二维位移,利用扫描光栅代替棱镜对干涉信号的相位进行调制,使编码器结构紧凑 光栅结构复杂,实际装调难度高,精度、稳定性等参数有待验证,停留在实验室测试阶段
    基于正交衍射光栅的三维纳米位移传感器 上海交通大学 实现了三维纳米级的位移测量 安装定位要求高,结构复杂,处于试验测试阶段
    超精密外差利特罗式光栅干涉位移测量系统 清华大学机械工程系摩擦学国家重点实验室与超精密制造装备及控制北京市重点实验室 高环境鲁棒性,死程误差小 量程受对称光路结构的限制
    一种用于远距离、纳米精度的位移测量的时间光栅传感器 重庆理工大学机械检测技术与设备工程研究中心 测量范围大,测量精度达到纳米级,制造成本低,不需要被测物体匀速运动,利用时间量测量精度高 旋转磁场均匀度受速度制约,时栅的加工误差对测量精度影响大,高速动态测量易发生畸变
    光纤光栅(FBG)位移传感器 新加坡大学美国生物医学工程学院 抗电磁干扰、抗腐蚀性强,可同时实现对位移与温度的检测 测量精度较低,加工工艺复杂,信号解调设备复杂
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    X43D SH. New fiber Bragg grating sensor-based local displacement transducer for small strain measurements of soil specimens[J]. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering , 2007, 39(7):1330-1335.(in Chinese) http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/ytgcxb201707020
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-11-07
  • 修回日期:  2018-12-29
  • 刊出日期:  2019-08-01

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