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中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料研究进展

程思扬 曹琪 包建勋 张舸

程思扬, 曹琪, 包建勋, 张舸. 中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2019, 12(5): 1064-1075. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191205.1064
引用本文: 程思扬, 曹琪, 包建勋, 张舸. 中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2019, 12(5): 1064-1075. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191205.1064
CHENG Si-yang, CAO Qi, BAO Jian-xun, ZHANG Ge. Research and development of medium/high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(5): 1064-1075. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191205.1064
Citation: CHENG Si-yang, CAO Qi, BAO Jian-xun, ZHANG Ge. Research and development of medium/high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(5): 1064-1075. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191205.1064

中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料研究进展

doi: 10.3788/CO.20191205.1064
基金项目: 

吉林省科技发展计划项目 20190101019JH

详细信息
    作者简介:

    程思扬(1994-), 男, 吉林白城人, 硕士研究生, 2016年于吉林大学获得学士学位, 现为中国科学院长春光学精密机械与物理研究所在读硕士研究生, 主要从事中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料制备方面研究。E-mail:719182156@qq.com

    曹琪(1987-), 男, 黑龙江哈尔滨人, 硕士, 助理研究员, 2010年、2012年于哈尔滨工业大学分别获得学士、硕士学位, 主要从事中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料制备方面研究。E-mail:nimitzcq@126.com

  • 中图分类号: TB331

Research and development of medium/high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites

Funds: 

Jilin Provincial Science and Technology Development Plan Project 20190101019JH

More Information
  • 摘要: 中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料相较于传统合金材料具有力学性能和热学性能"可裁剪"的特点。本文介绍了中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料的主要制备技术工艺,以及中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料在精密仪器、光学系统、电子封装及热控领域典型应用,最后展望了中高体积分数SiCp/Al复合材料未来的发展趋势。

     

  • 图 1  挤压铸造工艺制备SiCp/Al复合材料示意图[28]

    Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of SiCp/Al composite prepared by squeeze casting processing[28]

    图 2  真空气压浸渗装置原理示意图[29]

    Figure 2.  Schematic diagram of the vacuum infiltration device[29]

    图 3  红外成像制导系统的SiCp/Al复合材料部件[39]

    Figure 3.  Precision machined instrument grade MMC components for an imaging infrared guidance system[39]

    图 4  惯导系统结构件[38]

    Figure 4.  Structral parts used for inertial measurement and navigation system[38]

    图 5  超轻型空间望远镜原理图[44]

    Figure 5.  Prototype ultra-lightweight space telescope incorporating MMC materials[44]

    图 6  美国ACMC公司制备的SiCp/Al复合材料反射镜[39]

    Figure 6.  ACMC SiCp/Al mirrors[39]

    图 7  SiCp/Al应用于激光扫描镜[43]

    Figure 7.  Photographs of the laser scanning mirror made from 30Vol.% SiCp/Al composite[43]

    图 8  SiCp/Al复合材料反射镜[5]

    Figure 8.  Mirrors made from SiCp/Al composites[5]

    图 9  空间光机结构部件[30]

    Figure 9.  Space optomechanical components[30]

    图 10  全SiCp/Al反射镜组件

    Figure 10.  Components of all SiCp/Al mirrors

    图 11  微波封装组件[44]

    Figure 11.  Microwave packaging components[44]

    表  1  预制体制备技术对比[7, 15-26]

    Table  1.   Evaluation of preform fabrication method[7, 15-26]

    制备技术 成型方式/工艺流程 工艺复杂程度 复杂形状近净尺寸成型 大尺寸预制体制备 制备成本 制备周期 机械化程度 其他特点
    粉料堆积成型 采用振动压实的方法获得一定堆积密度的SiC预制体 简单 多为锭坯 较低 可利用预埋型芯可以成型具有一定形状的型腔[15-17]
    注射成型 碳化硅+粘结剂混合→注射成型→脱脂→碳化硅预制体[7] 复杂 近净尺寸成型 表面光洁度高、预制体尺寸精度高,可制备薄壁预制体[18-20]
    模压成型 碳化硅粉体+润滑剂+粘结剂混合→模压成型→烧结→碳化硅预制体 简单 多为锭坯 较短 常见的粘结剂为聚乙烯醇、硅溶胶、磷酸铝等,常见造孔剂为石墨等[21-24]
    凝胶注模成型 碳化硅粉体+有机物+分散剂球混→引发剂和催化剂作用下固化凝胶→脱脂→碳化硅预制体 复杂 近净尺寸成型 较高 坯体强度高、有机物含量低、可用于机械加工[25-26]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  粉末冶金法、搅拌铸造法与液相浸渗法工艺比较

    Table  2.   Comparison of powder metallurgy, stir casting and liquid infiltration methods

    制备工艺 优点 缺点
    粉末冶金 体积分数可调、材料性能高 工艺复杂、设备成本高
    搅拌铸造法 工艺简单,可铸造较为复杂形状制件 增强相体积分数偏低,不易分散均匀
    挤压铸造 操作简单、材料性能高、制备时间短 设备成本高、工艺难度较大
    气压浸渗 材料性能高,能够制备复杂形状材料 设备要求较高、制备周期较长
    无压浸渗 设备要求较低,能够制备大尺寸、复杂形状材料 制备周期较长、易发生有害界面反应
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  精密仪器常用材料性能对比[27, 38]

    Table  3.   Property comparison of commercial materials of precision instrument[27, 38]

    参数 LY12 RJY50 不锈钢 TC4 SiCp/Al(中等体积分数)
    密度/(g·cm-3) 2.78 1.85 7.9 4.44 2.9
    线膨胀系数/(×10-6K-1) 23 11.8 16.6 9.1 11-13
    热导率/(W/(m·K)) 150 >150 16.3 6.8 130~150
    弹性模量/GPa 71 309 184 110 140~150
    微屈服强度/MPa <120 100 <100 >220
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  传统电子封装材料与芯片材料热物理性能与密度[20, 27]

    Table  4.   Thermophysical properties and density of traditional electric packaging materials and chip materials[20, 27]

    材料 密度/(g·cm-3) 线膨胀系×10-6K-1 热导率W/(m·K)
    Al 2.7 23.6 238
    Cu 8.96 17.8 398
    CuW(10~20%Cu) 15.65~17 6.5~8.3 180~200
    CuMo(15~20%Mo) 10 7~8 160~170
    Invar 8.05 1.6 10
    Kovar 8.1 5.2 11~17
    SiCp/Al(PRIMEXTM) 3.01 5.8 225
    SiCp/Al(CPS) 3 7.63 180
    Si 2.3 4.2 151
    GaAs 5.32 6.5 54
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-08-06
  • 修回日期:  2018-09-20
  • 刊出日期:  2019-10-01

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