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航天高分辨率对地光学遥感载荷研究进展

苏云 葛婧菁 王业超 王乐然 王钰 郑子熙

苏云, 葛婧菁, 王业超, 王乐然, 王钰, 郑子熙. 航天高分辨率对地光学遥感载荷研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文). doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0085
引用本文: 苏云, 葛婧菁, 王业超, 王乐然, 王钰, 郑子熙. 航天高分辨率对地光学遥感载荷研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文). doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0085
SU Yun, GE Jing-jing, WANG Ye-chao, WANG Le-ran, WANG Yu, ZHENG Zi-xi. Research progress on high-resolution imaging system for optical remote sensing in aerospace[J]. Chinese Optics. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0085
Citation: SU Yun, GE Jing-jing, WANG Ye-chao, WANG Le-ran, WANG Yu, ZHENG Zi-xi. Research progress on high-resolution imaging system for optical remote sensing in aerospace[J]. Chinese Optics. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0085

航天高分辨率对地光学遥感载荷研究进展

doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0085
基金项目: 国家自然基金项目(No. 6217031112,No. 61976169,No. 11774164)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    苏 云(1982—),男,湖北当阳人,博士,研究员,2005年6月于北京理工大学获得学士学位,2008 年 6 月于中国空间技术研究院获得硕士学位,2018 年9月起在西安电子科技大学攻读博士学位,自2008年6月于北京空间机电研究所工作,主要从事先进光学系统设计、计算光学基础理论与方法研究。E-mail:suedul@163.com

    葛婧菁(1984—),女,黑龙江绥芬河人,博士,高级工程师,2011年6月获得南开大学博士学位,2011年8月至今于北京空间机电研究工作,主要从事光学遥感、计算光学等方面的研究。E-mail:m18210968826@163.com

    王业超(1993—),男,甘肃临夏人,硕士,工程师,2020年6月获得中国空间技术研究院硕士学位,主要从事计算成像模型及重建算法等方面的研究。E-mail: cast_wangyc_508@163.com

    王乐然(1996—),女,黑龙江齐齐哈尔人,硕士,助理工程师,2021年6月获得天津大学硕士学位,主要从事光学设计,图像处理等方面的研究。E-mail:wangler7@163.com

    王 钰(1994—),男,内蒙古通辽人,博士,工程师,2021年6月获得中国空间技术研究院博士学位,主要从事新体制光学成像、光学遥感图像处理与应用等方面的研究。E-mail:93031@163.com

    郑子熙(1997—),女,河北承德人,硕士,助理工程师,2020年12月获得爱丁堡大学硕士学位,主要从事计算光学、光电学等方面的研究。E-mail:807492091@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: V474.2

Research progress on high-resolution imaging system for optical remote sensing in aerospace

Funds: Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 6217031112, No. 61976169, No. 11774164)
More Information
  • 摘要:

    随着光学成像技术不断发展和日益增长的遥感应用需求,跨尺度高分辨率光学技术在遥感领域得到广泛应用。为了获得更多的目标细节信息,国内外研究学者在不同技术方向开展了相关研究。本文通过对遥感成像的技术总结分类,介绍具有代表性的航天高分辨率对地光学遥感载荷技术,重点关注单体结构主镜、可展开分块拼接主镜、光学干涉主镜、光栅衍射主镜、虚拟合成孔径、光子型综合孔径成像、计算超分辨成像、编队合成孔径等成像体制,为高分辨率对地光学遥感载荷发展提供新的发展思路。

     

  • 图 1  1m以内高分辨率光学遥感卫星

    Figure 1.  High-resolution optical remote sensing satellites within 1 m

    图 2  高分辨率光学遥感卫星技术变迁

    Figure 2.  Technical changes of high resolution optical remote sensing satellite

    图 3  地球静止轨道空间监视系统

    Figure 3.  GEO-Oculus surveillance system

    图 4  高分四号遥感卫星

    Figure 4.  GF-4 remote sensing satellite

    图 5  4m碳化硅非球面反射镜

    Figure 5.  4m SiC aspherical mirror

    图 6  MOIRE概念图

    Figure 6.  Moire concept map

    图 7  MOIRE项目制备得到的具有衍图案的光学元器件

    Figure 7.  Optical components with diffraction pattern prepared by MOIRE project

    图 8  MOIRE系统已研制的1/8地面样机

    Figure 8.  1 / 8 ground prototype developed by MOIRE system

    图 9  MOIRE项目研制的空间环境试验样机

    Figure 9.  Space environment test prototype developed by MOIRE project

    图 10  GISMO卫星编队原理示意图

    Figure 10.  Schematic diagram of GISMO satellite formation principle

    图 11  ESA-EUSO概念示意图

    Figure 11.  ESA-EUSO concept diagram

    图 12  JEM-EUSO望远镜结构示意图

    Figure 12.  Structural diagram of JEM-EUSO telescope

    图 13  “猎鹰卫星-7”微卫星搭载的“光子筛”成像系统示意图

    Figure 13.  Schematic diagram of "photon screen" imaging system carried by "falcon-7" microsatellite

    图 14  衍射成像空间望远镜

    Figure 14.  Diffraction imaging space telescope

    图 15  5 m口径衍射望远镜主镜

    Figure 15.  Main mirror of 5 m aperture diffraction telescope

    图 16  NRO 研发的 SMT 望远镜(左)和 SMT 望远镜光路设计(右)

    Figure 16.  Optical path design of SMT telescope (left) and SMT telescope (right) developed by NRO

    图 17  “詹姆斯·韦伯空间望远镜”主镜的在轨展开过程

    Figure 17.  On orbit deployment of the main mirror of the James Webb Space Telescope

    图 18  詹姆斯·韦伯可展开分块望远镜

    Figure 18.  James Webb unfold block telescope

    图 19  地球静止轨道2m分辨率光学相机

    Figure 19.  2m resolution optical camera in GEO

    图 20  LUVOIR-A/LUVOIR-B模拟图

    Figure 20.  LUVOIR-A/LUVOIR-B models

    图 21  在轨组装典型范例

    Figure 21.  Typical foreign on-orbit assembly projects

    图 22  斐索-干涉合成孔径成像系统阵列

    Figure 22.  Configuration of Fizeau Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Imaging System

    图 23  Star-9系统

    Figure 23.  Star-9 system

    图 24  美国TPF-I空间干涉仪示意图

    Figure 24.  Space Interferometer TPF-I from the U.S.

    图 25  TPF-I集光望远镜示意图

    Figure 25.  Collecting Telescope TPF-I

    图 26  TPF-I光束合成望远镜示意图

    Figure 26.  Beam Synthesis Telescope TPF-I

    图 27  GOLAY-3自适应光学卫星系统

    Figure 27.  GOLAY-3 Adaptive Reconnaissance Optical Satellite System

    图 28  MIDAS系统示意图

    Figure 28.  MIDAS Optical system

    图 29  MIDAS光学系统图

    Figure 29.  MIDAS Optical system

    图 30  ONERA稀疏孔径系统布局图

    Figure 30.  Layout of ONERA Sparse Aperture System

    图 31  ONERA稀疏孔径系统共相位试验原理图

    Figure 31.  ONERA Sparse Aperture System co-phasing test

    图 32  ONERA稀疏孔径系统图像恢复仿真图

    Figure 32.  ONERA sparse aperture system image recovery simulation diagram

    图 33  达尔文任务的一种配置

    Figure 33.  Configuration of Darwin's Mission

    图 34  FFSAT的概念图

    Figure 34.  Conception of FFSAT

    图 35  三轴实验的配置

    Figure 35.  3-axis Piezo Stage

    图 36  左:原目标,右:SPIDER技术获取的图像

    Figure 36.  Left: Original Object, Right: Image Obtained by SPIDER Technology

    图 37  SPIDER系统示意图

    Figure 37.  SPIDER System Schematic Diagram

    图 38  洛克希德-马丁公司的“SPIDER”成像仪

    Figure 38.  Lockheed Martin's SPIDER

    图 39  SPOT-5亚像元超分辨率成像方式(Supermode模式)成像效果

    Figure 39.  Spot-5 Subpixel Super Resolution Imaging (Supermode mode) Imaging Effect

    图 40  SkySat卫星轨道分布示意图

    Figure 40.  SkySat Satellite Orbit Distribution Diagram

    图 41  SkySat-1探测器构成示意图

    Figure 41.  Schematic Diagram of Skysat-1 Detector Construction

    图 42  卫星采集RAW图像(左)VS 组合20帧后的超分辨图像(右)

    Figure 42.  RAW Image Acquired by Satellite (left)VS Super resolution Image after 20 Frames Combination (right)

    图 43  原始低分辨率数据

    Figure 43.  Raw low Resolution Data

    图 44  超分辨后结果

    Figure 44.  Results after super resolution

    图 45  原始低分辨率数据

    Figure 45.  Raw low Resolution Data

    图 46  超分辨后结果图

    Figure 46.  Results after super resolution

    图 47  相干孔径合成超分原理图

    Figure 47.  Coherent aperture synthesis supermetry schematic

    图 48  实验测试场景

    Figure 48.  Experimental test scenario

    表  1  高分辨率光学遥感卫星光学参数

    Table  1.   Optical parameters of high-resolution optical remote sensing satellites

    序号名称国家年份分辨率轨道
    1QuickBird-2美国20010.61 m450 km
    2IGS-1A日本20031 m500 km
    3OrbView-3美国20031 m470 km
    4Resurs-DK1俄罗斯20061 m360−610 km
    5EROS B以色列20060.7 m500 km
    6Ofeq-7以色列20070.5 m300−600 km
    7GeoEye-1美国20080.41 m681 km
    8KH-13美国20080.07 m
    9CartoSat-2印度20100.8 m635 km
    10Pleiades-4法国20110.5 m694 km
    11Worldview-3美国20140.3 m617 km
    12Gaojing-1中国20160.5 m530 km
    13Worldview-4美国20160.25 m617 km
    14BlackSky-4美国20180.85 m450 km
    15Hongqi1-H9中国20200.75m481.6 km
    16GFDM中国20200.5 m643.8 km
    17IGS-Optical 7日本20200.3 m485 km
    18SkySat-16美国20200.5 m456 km
    19JL-GF-02D中国20210.75 m650 km
    20WorldView –Legion美国预计20220.3 m
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  JEM-EUSO指标参数

    Table  2.   JEM-EUSO index parameters

    探测谱段/nm330~400
    口径/m2.5
    视场角/°±30
    可观测区域/km2>1.9×105
    焦面面积/m24.5
    像元数2.0×105
    像元尺寸/mm4.5
    角分辨率/°0.1
    时间分辨率/μs≤2.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  成像观测航天器口径参数

    Table  3.   Comparison of large aperture imaging observation spacecraft

    参数口径/m主镜面密度/(kg/m2)运行温度/K
    JWST6.5分块2050
    HST2.4单体180300
    “赫歇尔空间望远镜”3.5单体21.890
    KH-11
    侦察卫星
    2.4单体不详常温
    KH-12
    侦察卫星
    约3.3单体不详常温
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  JWST 航天器基本情况

    Table  4.   Basic parameters of JWST

    参数基本情况
    质量总质量约6500 kg,主镜质量约705 kg
    功率/W2000
    最大数据速率/(Mbit/s)28
    主镜直径6.5 m,由 18 块镀金六边形铍镜组成,
    每个镜块的直径为1.32 m,焦距为131.4 m
    遮阳板五层可展开遮阳板,展开约21.2 m×14.2 m
    观测波长可见光、近红外、中红外(0.6−28.5 μm)
    光学分辨率大约0.1
    仪器近红外相机、近红外光谱仪、中红外仪器、带
    有精巧导航系统的近红外成像仪与无缝光谱仪
    轨道日地拉格朗日L2点晕轨道
    工作温度/°C−235
    任务寿命5年,目标10年以上
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同类型遥感成像技术总结

    Table  5.   Summary of different types of remote sensing imaging technology

    序号技术名称优点缺点
    1大口径单体光学遥感成像技术技术成熟度高、
    成像分辨率高
    口径受限、系统精密、加工、装调难度大
    2单体衍射元件成像系统系统衍射效率高成像质量低、衍射元件复杂
    3空间展开式分块镜拼接主镜技术易满足发射要求、可实现分辨率高设计难度大、镜面调整难度大
    4光学综合孔径成像系统可实现大口径成像、
    系统结构分布
    式灵活布置
    子孔径共相位调整难度大
    5分块式平板光电成像探测系统系统集成度高、可实现轻小型化成像分辨率较低、加工工艺复杂
    6器件亚像素
    拼接技术
    可实现超分辨率成像、可行性高分辨率提升有限
    7多帧超分辨率成像技术可实现超分辨率成像、技术成熟分辨率提升有限、时间分辨率低
    8计算超分主动探测可实现超分辨率
    成像、系统可灵活
    分布式构型
    远距离对主动光源功率要求过高、易受噪声影响
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-04-25
  • 录用日期:  2022-07-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-08-03

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