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拉曼激光雷达大气温湿压探测技术研究进展

刘东 姚清睿 张思诺 高佳欣 王南朝 吴疆 刘崇

刘东, 姚清睿, 张思诺, 高佳欣, 王南朝, 吴疆, 刘崇. 拉曼激光雷达大气温湿压探测技术研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2023, 16(2): 243-257. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0145
引用本文: 刘东, 姚清睿, 张思诺, 高佳欣, 王南朝, 吴疆, 刘崇. 拉曼激光雷达大气温湿压探测技术研究进展[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2023, 16(2): 243-257. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0145
LIU Dong, YAO Qing-rui, ZHANG Si-nuo, GAO Jia-xin, WANG Nan-chao, WU Jiang, LIU Chong. Research progress of temperature, humidity and pressure detection technology using raman lidar[J]. Chinese Optics, 2023, 16(2): 243-257. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0145
Citation: LIU Dong, YAO Qing-rui, ZHANG Si-nuo, GAO Jia-xin, WANG Nan-chao, WU Jiang, LIU Chong. Research progress of temperature, humidity and pressure detection technology using raman lidar[J]. Chinese Optics, 2023, 16(2): 243-257. doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0145

拉曼激光雷达大气温湿压探测技术研究进展

doi: 10.37188/CO.2022-0145
基金项目: 浙江省自然科学基金杰出青年项目(No. LR19D050001);国家重点研发计划(No. 2021YFC2202001);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(No. 2021XZZX019);现代光学仪器国家重点实验室创新项目(No. MOI2021ZD01)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘 东(1982—),男,辽宁大连人,博士,教授,博士生导师,2005 年、2010 年在浙江大学分别获得学士、博士学位,主要从事于环境激光雷达(大气、海洋及星载)、机器视觉与深度学习、光电干涉检测等研究。E-mail:Liudongopt@zju.edu.cn

    姚清睿(2001—),女,安徽合肥人,主要从事大气激光雷达领域研究。E-mail:3190104988@zju. edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P41

Research progress of temperature, humidity and pressure detection technology using raman lidar

Funds: Supported by Excellent Young Scientist Program of Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LR19D050001); National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2021YFC2202001); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2021XZZX019); State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation Innovation Program (No. MOI2021ZD01)
  • 摘要:

    温度、湿度、压强是3个重要的大气参数。快速、准确地了解大气的温度、湿度和压强信息及其变化趋势,对天气、气候、人工影响天气等研究有重要意义。拉曼激光雷达通过分离拉曼散射信号反演得到各种大气环境相关参数,可实现对大气参数廓线信息的高精度探测,在大气温湿压探测中独具优势与潜力。本文介绍了拉曼激光雷达对大气温度、湿度和压强的探测原理与反演方法,着重介绍了拉曼激光雷达中滤光片、标准具、光栅等常用分光器件的优缺点及其进展,以及拉曼激光雷达中涉及到的探测技术。最后例举了利用拉曼激光雷达对气象参数测量的典型应用。

     

  • 图 1  拉曼散射原子层面原理示意

    Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of Raman scattering principle

    图 2  激光雷达结构示意系统

    Figure 2.  Structure schematic of laser radar system

    图 3  多光束干涉原理示意图

    Figure 3.  Schematic diagram of multiple-beam interference principle

    图 4  多色仪示意图。OF,光纤;L1–L5,透镜;IF1a–IF4,干涉滤光片;ND,中性密度衰减器;PMT1–PMT4,分别用于检测弹性、低和高量子数转动拉曼和N2振动转动拉曼信号的光电倍增管[24]

    Figure 4.  Schematic diagram of polychromator. OF, optical fiber; L1–L5 ,lenses; IF1a–IF4,interference filters; ND, neutral density attenuator; PMT1–PMT4, photomultiplier tubes for detection of the elastic, low- and high-quantum-number rotational Raman and N2 vibrational–rotational Raman signals, respectively[24]

    图 5  转动拉曼激光雷达分光和滤波光路。OF,光纤;L,透镜;IF1a–IF2,干涉滤光片;ND,中性密度衰减器;PMT,光电倍增管[29]

    Figure 5.  Splitting and filtering optical path of rotating Raman lidar. OF, optical fiber; L, Lens; IF1a-IF2, interference filter; Nd, neutral density attenuator; PMT photomultiplier[29]

    图 6  Fabry-Perot标准具简图。S1,光源;L1-L2,透镜;G1-G2,平行玻璃板;S2,光屏

    Figure 6.  Schematic diagram of Fabry-Perot interferometer. S1, light source; L1-L2, lens; G1-G2, parallel glass plate; S2, light screen

    图 7  武汉大学用于测量大气温度和气溶胶光学特性的单线提取转动拉曼激光雷达的光学布局。BS,分束器;L,透镜;IF,干涉滤光片;FPI,Fabry-Perot标准具;PMT,光电倍增管[35]

    Figure 7.  Optical layout of single-line-extracted PRR lidar proposed by Wuhan University for measuring atmospheric temperature and aerosol optical properties. BS, beam splitter; L, lens; IF, interference filter; FPI, Fabry-Perot interferometer; PMT, photo-multiplier tube[35]

    图 8  光栅结构原理示意图。i$ \theta $分别是入射角和反射角,d为光栅常数

    Figure 8.  Schematic diagram of grating structure. i$ \theta $ are incident and reflection angles, respectively. d is the grating constant

    图 9  双衍射光栅单色仪结构。PMT为光电倍增管[39]

    Figure 9.  Double diffraction grating monochromator structure. PMT, photomultiplier tube[39]

    图 10  北京理工大学自主设计的双光栅单色仪示意图。左侧为两个发光光栅,在532 nm波段以利特罗条件入射[44]

    Figure 10.  Schematic diagram of the double grating monochromator independently designed by the Beijing Institute of Technology. Two luminous gratings on the left working in the band of 532 nm under the Elitro incident condition[44]

    图 11  全光纤分光系统。FC01,光纤耦合器;FBG,布拉格光栅;信号输出S_R12,S_R21至光电检测器[50]

    Figure 11.  All-fiber splitter system. FC01, fiber coupler; FBG, Bragg grating; signal output S_R12, S_R21 to photoelectric detector[50]

    图 12  由SFBG和FBG多级级联构成的高抑制率全光纤拉曼光谱分光光路示意图[52]

    Figure 12.  Schematic diagram of the Raman spectroscopic optical path of the all-fiber with a high suppression rate composed of SFBG and FBG cascades[52]

    表  1  PMT 和APD性能比较

    Table  1.   Performance comparison of PMT and APD

    PMTAPD
    工作波段适用于紫外到近红外波段,响应光谱范围为200~900 nm适用于红外波段,响应光谱范围为400~1650 nm
    增益104~107102~103
    量子效率20%~25%线性模式下可以达到80%,而盖革模式下可以达到40%~50%.
    脉冲上升时间~1 nsSi:0.1~2 ns
    Ge:0.5~0.8 ns
    InGaAs:0.1~0.5 ns
    抗磁场性
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  MCP-PMT和SiPM性能比较

    Table  2.   Performance comparison of MCP-PMT and SiPM

    MCP-PMTSiPM
    工作波段从真空紫外到近红外波段4000~1100 nm
    增益105~106105~106
    量子效率20%~25%25%~70%
    上升时间200~800 ps~1 ns
    抗磁场性良好
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-06-29
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