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基于激光多普勒频移的钢轨缺陷监测

邢博 余祖俊 许西宁 朱力强

邢博, 余祖俊, 许西宁, 朱力强. 基于激光多普勒频移的钢轨缺陷监测[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2018, 11(6): 991-1000. doi: 10.3788/CO.20181106.0991
引用本文: 邢博, 余祖俊, 许西宁, 朱力强. 基于激光多普勒频移的钢轨缺陷监测[J]. 中国光学(中英文), 2018, 11(6): 991-1000. doi: 10.3788/CO.20181106.0991
XING Bo, YU Zu-jun, XU Xi-ning, ZHU Li-qiang. Rail defect monitoring based on laser Doppler frequency shift theory[J]. Chinese Optics, 2018, 11(6): 991-1000. doi: 10.3788/CO.20181106.0991
Citation: XING Bo, YU Zu-jun, XU Xi-ning, ZHU Li-qiang. Rail defect monitoring based on laser Doppler frequency shift theory[J]. Chinese Optics, 2018, 11(6): 991-1000. doi: 10.3788/CO.20181106.0991

基于激光多普勒频移的钢轨缺陷监测

doi: 10.3788/CO.20181106.0991
基金项目: 

“十三五”国家重点研发计划 2016YFB1200401

中央高校基本科研业务费 2016RC004

详细信息
    作者简介:

    邢博(1991-), 女, 吉林长春人, 博士研究生, 2014年于北京交通大学获得学士学位, 并保送北京交通大学硕博连读, 2015年转为博士研究生, 主要从事铁路基础设施无损检测方面的研究。E-mail:15116333@bjtu.edu.cn

    许西宁(1979-), 男, 江苏徐州人, 博士后, 2014年于北京交通大学获得博士学位, 现为北京交通大学讲师, 主要从事铁路基础设施无损检测方面的研究。E-mail:xuxining@bjtu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TB553;TB57

Rail defect monitoring based on laser Doppler frequency shift theory

Funds: 

National Key Research and Development Program of China 2016YFB1200401

Foundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities 2016RC004

More Information
  • 摘要: 针对现阶段我国铁路上应用的探伤设备只能在天窗时间进行人工巡检,无法在线监测的问题,提出一种基于超声导波的激光多普勒频移法钢轨内部缺陷监测方法。首先,引入环境温度作为变量改进了半解析有限元方法,并应用该方法获得了我国无缝线路CHN60钢轨在特定温度下的频散曲线。通过分析振型并结合激励响应算法确定了适于检测缺陷的模态及其激励方式,从而激励该超声导波模态使其在钢轨中传播。然后,应用半反半透玻璃镜将激光分为参考光和测量光,测量光通过Bragg Cell进行频偏照射钢轨表面,通过反射光产生的多普勒频移与参考光干涉得到光强度变化曲线,经过信号处理及标定测得钢轨内部缺陷的回波速度信号,再经过数字化处理和计算得到缺陷的位置。最后,在北京环形铁路试验基地进行了现场实验,以钢轨接地孔模拟钢轨内部核伤,得到缺陷定位误差均小于0.5 m,验证了该方法的可行性。使用激光多普勒频移方法检测导波信号从而定位缺陷的方法可以有效避免由于换能器接触性测量而产生的误差。该方法在不影响列车的正常运营的同时,实现了全天候无间断的在线监测,提高了检测效率。

     

  • 图 1  CHN60钢轨坐标系

    Figure 1.  Coordinates of CHN60 rail

    图 2  CHN60轨截面离散图

    Figure 2.  Discretization of cross section of CHN60 rail

    图 3  频散曲线(T=32 ℃)

    Figure 3.  Dispersion curves(T=32 ℃)

    图 4  -20 ℃和40 ℃时3号轨腰扭转模态频散曲线

    Figure 4.  Dispersion curves of rail waist torsional mode for No.3 rail at -20 ℃ and 40 ℃

    图 5  钢轨中声波的衰减曲线图

    Figure 5.  Attenuation curves of sound waves in rails

    图 6  钢轨中各模态的振型

    Figure 6.  Vibration shapes of various modes in rails

    图 7  模态3的振型

    Figure 7.  Vibration shapes of mode 3

    图 8  激励方向和位置

    Figure 8.  Excitation direction and position

    图 9  激励信号频谱

    Figure 9.  Frequency spectrum of exciting signal

    图 10  4 m处轨腰中心y方向位移

    Figure 10.  Y direction displacement of rail waist center at x=4 m

    图 11  轨腰接地孔模拟缺陷

    Figure 11.  Simulation defect of rail waist ground hole

    图 12  仿真模型图

    Figure 12.  Simulation models

    图 13  回波信号

    Figure 13.  Reflection echo signal

    图 14  发射换能器安装图

    Figure 14.  Transmitting transducer installation

    图 15  设计原理及检测现场图

    Figure 15.  Design principle and detection image

    图 16  换能器安装位置示意图

    Figure 16.  Sketch of transducer installation

    图 17  接收点r1波形

    Figure 17.  Waveform of receiving node r1

    表  1  缺陷位置估算及误差

    Table  1.   Defect location estimation and its error

    h1h2error1error2
    6 m3.3519.330.050.43
    10 m3.5318.440.130.46
    14 m3.2819.280.120.38
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-09-11
  • 修回日期:  2018-10-15
  • 刊出日期:  2018-12-01

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