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2019年  12卷  第1期

原创文章
信息光学视角下菲涅耳双棱镜干涉的研究
张颖涛, 李洪国
2019, 12(1): 122-129. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0122
摘要:
菲涅耳双棱镜干涉在相衬成像和全息显微术中有重要应用。为了促进其应用,本文从信息光学角度研究双棱镜干涉,首先利用光场与脉冲响应函数之间的关系,理论导出了菲涅耳双棱镜干涉条纹强度公式,分析并讨论了狭缝缝宽及狭缝到双棱镜距离对菲涅耳双棱镜干涉条纹的影响,狭缝宽度大于0.1 mm时,干涉条纹分辨率变差。接着给出了改变狭缝宽度(变化量为0.08 mm)和改变狭缝到双棱镜的距离(从8 cm变化到12 cm)的实验结果,理论分析和实验结果一致。该结果有助于促进菲涅耳双棱镜干涉在相衬成像等领域的应用。
LAMOST高分辨率光谱仪研制
张天一, 朱永田, 侯永辉, 张凯, 胡中文, 王磊, 陈忆, 姜海娇, 汤振, 许明明, 姜明达
2019, 12(1): 148-155. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0148
摘要:
为了充分利用LAMOST望远镜,实现对银河系不同星族的分布与整体性研究,以及极端贫金属星元素丰度测定等科学目标,研制了LAMOST高分辨率光谱仪,光谱分辨率R ≥ 30 000,光谱覆盖范围380~740 nm。在充分考虑台址因素与现有条件后,采用中继倍率0.7倍的准白瞳设计方案,使用大芯径光纤、拼接大光栅、棱栅组合式横向色散器、缝前像切分器等措施来满足性能要求。进行了效率估算与杂散光分析,光谱仪本体效率峰值大于30%,杂散光照度占CCD总照度的2.55%,信噪比为16.01 dB。试运行阶段实测了太阳光谱,温度稳定性达到±0.03℃,光谱仪效率峰值约为33.5%,满足稳定、高效的运行要求。
大随机相位误差下条带模式合成孔径激光雷达成像实验
李明磊, 吴谨, 白涛, 万磊, 李丹阳
2019, 12(1): 130-137. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0130
摘要:
为了探索大随机相位误差条件下合成孔径雷达(SAL)成像特点和规律,本文采用波长为1 550 nm的线性调频激光器建立了能够产生大的共模随机相位误差的条带模式SAL成像实验装置。利用此装置获得了不同目标回波强度下条带模式SAL成像实验数据,结合条带模式相位梯度自聚焦(PGA)多次迭代处理,获得了高分辨率SAL图像。实验发现在[-6.45π,6.45π]范围的大随机相位误差下,通过简单的距离压缩和方位匹配滤波,无法实现SAL图像聚焦,图像信噪比仅为3 dB。进一步采用PGA处理,就能很好地校正相位误差,得到聚焦良好的SAL图像,图像信噪比达到43 dB。实验还发现,当存在大共模随机相位误差时,PGA处理展现出非常强的鲁棒性,在回波弱到10-15 W的情况下依然有效。在大相位误差存在的SAL系统(如机载SAL)中,PGA处理能有效消除相位误差,实现图像聚焦;另外,增大探测激光功率以提高成像数据信噪比,将有助于提升PGA处理效果。
Li+, Zn2+, Mg2+掺杂Lu2O3:Er3+荧光粉的制备及发光特性
王林香, 庹娟, 叶颖, 赵海琴
2019, 12(1): 112-121. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0112
摘要:
用微波高温固相法合成了Er3+单掺Lu2O3,Li+与Er3+共掺Lu2O3及Li+,Zn2+,Mg2+掺杂Lu2O3:Er3+的荧光粉。实验表明金属离子Li+、Zn2+、Mg2+、Er3+掺杂Lu2O3,不影响Lu2O3的立方晶相。扫描电子显微镜测量表明,Li+掺杂可以有效改善粉体的分散性和形貌,Li+,Zn2+,Mg2+共掺杂获得的粉体颗粒分布更加均匀,粒径范围为80~100 nm。379 nm激发下,Li+与Er3+共掺样品发光较单掺Er3+样品在565 nm处的发光增强了4.5倍,而Li+、Zn2+、Mg2+与Er3+共掺样品较其发光增强5.3倍。980 nm激发下,Li+与Er3+共掺样品,Li+、Zn2+、Mg2+与Er3+共掺样品的发光分别比单掺Er3+样品在565 nm处发光增强23倍与39倍,在662 nm处发光强度分别增强20倍与43倍。379 nm激发下,较单掺Er3+的样品,掺杂Li+的样品和Li+,Zn2+,Mg2+和Er3+共掺的样品荧光寿命均有所增加,而Zn2+、Er3+共掺及Mg2+、Er3+共掺样品的荧光寿命则有所缩短。
Suppression of inter and intra channel four wave mixing effects in optical CDMA over DWDM hybrid system
Naif Alsowaidi, Tawfig Eltaif, Mohd Ridzuan Mokhtar
2019, 12(1): 156-166. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0156
摘要:
In this study, a hybrid system of optical Code Division Multiple Access(optical CDMA) and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing(DWDM) is proposed with a comprehensive investigation into the effect of four-wave mixing(FWM). In such system, two major FWM problems exist, inter and intra-channel FWM, including multiple access interference(MAI) and inter-symbol interference(ISI). Results show that the optimum transmitted power is 18dBm in order to control the trade-off between inter and intra-channel FWM, where an increase in the BER of the hybrid system at transmitted power above 18 dBm is indicated. Hence, an electro-optic phase modulator(EOPM) module is proposed and placed after the WDM multiplexer to simultaneously modulate the phase of all wavelengths signals to increase the nonlinear tolerance in the hybrid system by suppressing the impact of intra-channel FWM, which is shown to greatly improve the performance of the optical CDMA-DWDM hybrid system based OOK transmission. In addition, the effect of MAI can be reduced by the use of multi-diagonal(MD) identification sequence code, due to the zero cross-correlation property of MD. The results also reveal that the CDMA technology in conjunction with chromatic dispersion helps to reduce the effect of inter-channel FWM. Moreover, the identification sequence code interval plays crucial role in the mitigating of ISI as the results expose that the best performance of the proposed hybrid system can be achieved when the identification sequence code interval squeezed into 25% of bit duration where the avoidance of ISI is guaranteed.
Output characteristics of diode-pumped passively Q-switched Yb: CaYAlO4 pulsed laser based on a SESAM
TANG Rui, GAO Zi-ye, WU Zheng-mao, XIA Guang-qiong
2019, 12(1): 167-178. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0167
摘要:
By utilizing a fiber-coupled laser diode emitting at a wavelength of around 976 nm as a pump source and a Yb:CaYAlO4 crystal with a Yb3+ ion doping concentration of 1.5at.% and a thickness of 2 mm as the gain medium, a scheme of laser diode-pumped Yb:CaYAlO4 for passively Q-switched pulsed lasers using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror(SESAM) is proposed. By reasonably designing the resonant cavity, a stable passively Q-switched pulsed output is achieved. Furthermore, the influence of the pump power on the pulse repetition rate, pulse width, single pulse energy and peak power are analyzed.
SERS characteristics analysis of composite Ag/SiO2 sinusoidal grating
XIAO Cheng, CHEN Zhi-bin, QIN Meng-ze, ZHANG Dong-xiao
2019, 12(1): 59-74. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0059
摘要:
In current microfluidic-SERS(surface-enhanced Raman scattering) detection fields, noble metal nanoparticle sols are commonly used but a limited number of hot spots exist per unit of its volume and the areas of these hot spots are very small. Another common SERS substrate, the noble metal nano-three-dimensional array, has a time-consuming fabrication process and is costly to manufacture, while also succumbing to the memory effect. In this paper, a composite Ag/SiO2 sinusoidal grating SERS substrate structure integrated into a microchannel is proposed, which can be fabricated by laser interference photolithography and has no need for prefabricated photomasks. Large area and low-cost SERS substrates can be created simply and rapidly by using this method. The mathematical evaluation model of electric field enhancement near the composite sinusoidal grating surface is established with rigorous coupled wave analysis(RCWA). The mathematical model of the surface plasmon polaritons(SPP) coupling absorption is derived. The optimization matching relation of incident light, the composite sinusoidal grating structure and the dielectric constant of the external environment are analyzed. The optimal composite sinusoidal grating structure was obtained when the wavelength of incident light was 785 nm. The composite sinusoidal grating was prepared and its SERS performance was verified experimentally, proving that the SERS enhancement factor(EF) can reach 104.
Femtosecond pulse compression using negative-curvature hollow-core fibers
YU Tao-ying, LIU Xue-song, ANDREY D. Pryamikov, ALEXEY F. Kosolapov, ZHANG Hong-bo, FAN Zhong-wei
2019, 12(1): 75-87. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0075
摘要:
In order to compress femtosecond ultrashort pulses, a novel fiber called negative-curvature hollow-core fiber, is investigated and is used to compress the output of a Ti:Sapphire laser. Firstly, a hollow-core fiber with circular tubes cladding is introduced, and the loss parameter is calculated with the Finite Element Method and the calculated results are compared with the experimental results. Following this, the evolution of an ultrashort pulse along the fiber is simulated in the General Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation. At last the compression experiment using NC-HCF is conducted. The 160 fs output of a Ti:Sapphire laser is coupled into the fiber with high-pressure Argon. An output of 84 fs is achieved, which is the result of the balance between anomalous dispersion and self-phase modulation in the fiber. The experimental results matched the simulations. This novel fiber, which has the advantages of a high damage threshold, low and adjustable dispersion and nonlinear coefficients, is a promising material in the field of ultrafast optics.
多光子皮肤成像技术及其应用
应亚宸, 张广杰, 贾荟琳, 陆政元, 石玉洁, 席鹏
2019, 12(1): 104-111. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0104
摘要:
多光子成像技术是一种层析能力好、信噪比高的新型光学成像技术。在皮肤光学三维检测中,多光子技术已经应用于无创在体成像,且已得到产业化开发。本文将首先介绍多光子皮肤检测系统的若干核心技术,即双光子自发荧光技术、二次谐波成像技术、荧光寿命成像技术、相干反斯托克斯-拉曼成像技术等,然后简要介绍多光子成像系统在皮肤疾病成像检测上的应用,最后分析该系统的优势和未来可能的发展趋势。
基于智能手机的眼底成像系统
丛婧, 俎明明, 李洪涛, 崔笑宇, 陈硕, 席鹏
2019, 12(1): 97-103. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0097
摘要:
眼底成像技术可检测临床视网膜组织状态,其检测结果已成为多种眼底疾病诊断的重要依据。然而,传统的眼底成像系统需要专业医护人员操作,且具有体积大、价格昂贵等缺点。随着智能手机的图像采集、存储、数据传输等功能的不断提升,基于智能手机的眼底成像系统可有效弥补传统眼底成像系统的上述缺陷。在本研究中,我们设计了照明和成像光路并利用3D打印技术将其小型化,通过与智能手机相结合实现了对人眼视网膜图像的采集。结果表明,基于智能手机的眼底相机距离模拟眼的工作距离约为17 mm,安置于体积仅为88 mm×79 mm×42 mm(长×宽×高)的手机外设配件中。随后,利用Zemax对系统光学参数进行了进一步优化。经优化后的成像系统,畸变保持在0.2%范围内,场曲小于10 μm。该系统具有便携性良好、无创、价格低廉等优点,未来可用于多种眼底疾病的社区筛查工作。
3种主动合成孔径成像技术极限探测能力的分析与比较
董磊, 卢振武, 刘欣悦
2019, 12(1): 138-147. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0138
摘要:
为了深入研究可行的中高轨成像技术,本文从探测能力角度(用最低发射激光功率表示)深入分析和比较3种主动干涉合成孔径成像技术——傅立叶望远镜(又称为相干场成像或条纹场扫描成像)、成像相关术(又称为强度相关成像)和剪切光束成像。本文利用光电倍增管的信噪比模型和激光作用距离方程,较为细致地分析每种技术在满足单次信噪比(SNR=5)条件下的极限探测能力。通过仿真分析得出:傅立叶望远镜、成像相关术和剪切光束成像所需的最低单光束单脉冲能量分别为11.4 J、0.73 MJ和3.1 MJ。最终得出傅立叶望远镜是上述3种主动成像技术中在目前技术水平下最适合中高轨目标(约36 000 km)高分辨成像的可用技术的结论。
LED微阵列投影系统设计
冯思悦, 梁静秋, 梁中翥, 吕金光, 陶金, 王维彪, 秦余欣, 孟德佳
2019, 12(1): 88-96. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0088
摘要:
为满足便携式投影仪的市场需求,设计了一种基于LED微型阵列的投影系统。该系统由显示单元和投影物镜构成。采用尺寸为12 mm×9 mm的自发光LED微型阵列作为系统的显示单元,利用光学设计软件设计了投影物镜。投影物镜采用反远距光学结构,全视场角为80°,焦距为8 mm,属于强光、广角镜头。在空间频率20 lp/mm处,该物镜的调制传递函数大于0.85,畸变小于2%,符合投影系统的设计要求。该投影系统具有体积小,结构简单,投影效果好,易加工等诸多优势,可为第三代投影技术的发展提供参考。
综述
紫外增强硅基成像探测器进展
张猛蛟, 蔡毅, 江峰, 钟海政, 王岭雪
2019, 12(1): 19-37. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0019
摘要:
硅基紫外成像探测技术具有可靠性好、集成度高、容易大面阵化、成本低等优势,成为探测领域的重要研究方向。随着硅半导体工艺的持续进步以及纳米科学的发展,利用半导体技术、荧光转换材料或者低维纳米结构来增强硅基探测器的紫外响应取得了长足的进步。本文综述了国内外硅基紫外增强成像探测器件、系统应用的进展,通过回顾器件发展的历史和对研究现状的分析,并结合紫外探测技术在天文物理、生化分析、电晕检测等领域的应用进展,探讨了硅基紫外成像探测技术发展的趋势和挑战。
太赫兹波三维成像技术研究进展
王与烨, 陈霖宇, 徐德刚, 石嘉, 冯华, 姚建铨
2019, 12(1): 1-18. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0001
摘要:
太赫兹波具有良好的光谱特性、非电离性和对许多非极性材料具有穿透性,在无损探伤、安检、生物医学诊断、艺术品鉴别等领域表现出许多独特的优点。特别是,太赫兹波三维成像技术能够实现样品内部信息探测,逐渐成为当前的研究热点,并展现出广阔的发展前景。本文重点介绍了太赫兹波三维成像的几种常用技术,包括其基本原理和对应的研究进展,并分析了存在的问题和发展趋势。
锥形半导体激光器研究进展
孙胜明, 范杰, 徐莉, 邹永刚, 杨晶晶, 龚春阳
2019, 12(1): 48-58. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0048
摘要:
锥形半导体激光器具有高功率、高光束质量等特点,因此受到广泛关注并成为研究热点。从3种结构(传统结构、分布式布拉格反射(DBR)结构、侧向光栅条纹结构)的锥形半导体激光器出发,对国内外近十年具有代表性研究成果进行综述,介绍其理论研究和实验进展,并对锥形半导体激光器的未来发展进行展望。
双光子吸收碱金属蒸气激光器研究进展
俞航航, 陈飞, 李耀彪, 何洋, 潘其坤, 谢冀江, 于德洋, 卢启鹏
2019, 12(1): 38-47. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191201.0038
摘要:
蓝紫激光和中红外激光在基础研究和国防工程中有重要的应用前景。单光子吸收的碱金属蒸气激光器具有量子效率高、受激发射截面大和热管理性能好等优点,近些年来已成为激光领域中研究热点之一,目前已实现kW量级的输出。双光子吸收的碱金属蒸气激光器可实现蓝紫激光和中红外激光级联输出的特性,也引起越来越多的关注。本文从碱金属原子密度、泵浦光功率、偏振和频率失调量以及调控激光等几种影响因素出发,综述了双光子吸收碱金属蒸气激光的研究进展,在此基础上分析了影响激光输出特性的原因,最后对双光子吸收碱金属蒸气激光器的发展趋势进行了展望。