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2021年  14卷  第2期

综述
光学自由曲面自适应干涉检测研究新进展
张磊, 吴金灵, 刘仁虎, 俞本立
2021, 14(2): 227-244. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0126
摘要:
光学自由曲面因其表面自由度较多而难于进行检测。干涉检测法具有高精度非接触的特点,但传统干涉仪中的静态补偿器在自由曲面加工过程中未知面形不断变化的情况下,难以实现原位检测。因此,可编程控制的大动态范围自适应补偿器成为近年来自由曲面干涉检测中的研究热点。结合课题组在自由曲面自适应干涉检测领域的工作,介绍了光学自由曲面自适应干涉检测的最新研究进展,详细分析了基于可变形镜和空间光调制器的自适应干涉检测技术,介绍了针对干涉图目标的自适应控制算法,总结了两大类自适应检测方法的优点以及发展瓶颈,并对未来自由曲面的自适应检测技术进行了展望。
Interrogation technology for quasi-distributed optical fiber sensing systems based on microwave photonics
WU Ni-shan, XIA Li
2021, 14(2): 245-263. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0121
摘要:
Quasi-distributed fiber sensing systems play an important role in the fields of civil engineering, energy surveying, aerospace, national defense, chemicals, etc. Interrogation technology for quasi-distributed fiber sensing systems based on microwave photonics is widely used in high-speed and high-precision signal demodulation and sensor positioning in optical fiber multiplexing systems. Compared to conventional optical wavelength interrogation, this technology greatly improves system demodulation rate and compensates for the defects of traditional sensor positioning methods. This paper introduces the recent research progress of quasi-distributed fiber sensing interrogation technology based on microwave photonics; compares and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of several existing microwave demodulation systems from the perspective of their fiber grating quasi-distributed sensing and fiber Fabry-Perot quasi-distributed sensing systems, respectively; and provides a summary of the prospective direction of future research in quasi-distributed fiber sensing interrogation technology based on microwave photonics.
0.9~1.0 μm近红外连续光纤激光器的研究进展
党文佳, 李哲, 卢娜, 李玉婷, 张蕾, 田晓
2021, 14(2): 264-274. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0193
摘要:
波长为0.9~1.0 μm的近红外连续光纤激光器在高功率蓝光和紫外激光产生、高功率单模泵浦源、生物医学以及激光雷达等领域具有重要的应用前景,成为近年来的一个研究热点。目前,0.9~1.0 μm光纤激光器的增益机制主要有稀土离子增益和非线性效应增益,本文详细梳理了基于这两类增益机制的0.9~1.0 μm连续光纤激光器的研究进展,并深入分析了各类激光器存在的技术瓶颈及解决途径,最后对0.9~1.0 μm光纤激光器的发展趋势和应用前景进行了展望。
面向天基引力波探测的时间延迟干涉技术
王登峰, 姚鑫, 焦仲科, 任帅, 刘玄, 钟兴旺
2021, 14(2): 275-288. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0098
摘要:
时间延迟干涉技术(Time-delay Interferometry,TDI)对中国引力波探测项目及其它天基激光精密测量任务具有重要的参考价值。在天基引力波探测任务中,需利用激光干涉仪对无拖曳检验质量块间实现十皮米量级的位移测量精度。其中,激光源频率噪声和时钟频率噪声是两项主要噪声。在欧洲主导的LISA(Laser Interferometer Space Antenna)引力波探测项目中,利用TDI对三星上的十二组相位测量值进行延迟和线性组合,构造出臂长相等的干涉仪,从而消除了激光源噪声以及光学平台位移噪声。为了消除时钟噪声,将时钟信号倍频到GHz,再通过相位调制的方式加载到星间激光链路上,最终从时钟边带拍频信号中提取出时钟噪声,并在TDI的数据组合中将时钟噪声项消除。为了实现TDI的时间延迟处理,要求对星间绝对距离进行精确测量。因此,在TDI机制中,星间激光链路需要同时实现位移测量、时钟边带调制和绝对距离测量3个功能。其中,后两个功能分别大约消耗10%和1%的载波激光功率。LISA项目针对TDI技术的地面论证结果表明,TDI技术对激光源和时钟的噪声抑制分别达到了109和5.8×104倍。
原创文章
扫频光学相干层析视网膜图像配准去噪算法
蔡怀宇, 韩晓艳, 娄世良, 汪毅, 陈文光, 陈晓冬
2021, 14(2): 289-297. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0130
摘要:
多帧叠加平均处理是去除扫频光学相干层析系统散斑噪声、获得较为清晰结构信息的有效方法,但眼睛的震颤、漂移、微眼跳等生理特性和系统光路特性会使图像之间存在错位,导致叠加效果不佳、结构稳定性差,为此本文提出一种基于灰度分布信息和目标几何信息相结合的配准算法。该方法根据图像平均灰度分布提取包含目标信息的感兴趣区域,通过相位相关算法和基于分段拟合的灰度投影算法的双重作用校正图像的平移变换;通过拟合视网膜上边界作为特征点迭代确定最佳旋转参数,并再次重新估计平移参数,实现图像的刚性配准;最后通过轴向扫描一对一映射法以能量函数为约束条件实现图像的非刚性配准。对活体兔眼进行实验,结果表明,本文算法配准后的叠加图像边界清晰,结构信息增强,信噪比和对比度平均有效提高一倍多。本算法适用于强噪声视网膜B-Scans图像的配准,能满足多种类型OCT系统的叠加成像需要,具有较高的鲁棒性和图像配准精度。
多尺度奇异值分解的偏振图像融合去雾算法与实验
周文舟, 范晨, 胡小平, 何晓峰, 张礼廉
2021, 14(2): 298-306. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0099
摘要:
针对现有偏振去雾算法鲁棒性不强和图像增强效果有限的问题,提出一种基于多尺度奇异值分解的图像融合去雾算法。首先,利用偏振测量信息的冗余特性,采用最小二乘法,提高了传统偏振图像去雾算法中偏振信息的准确度;然后,从传统偏振图像去雾算法的局限性出发,定性分析了偏振图像融合去雾的可行性,并提出了一种基于多尺度奇异值分解的偏振图像融合去雾算法;最后,设计了不同能见度条件下的验证实验并进行了量化评价。结果表明,与经典偏振图像去雾算法相比,该算法不需要进行人工参数调节,具有较强的自适应性和鲁棒性,能够有效改善传统算法中出现的光晕以及天空区域过曝的问题,图像信息熵与平均梯度最大可分别提高18.9%和38.4%,有效地增强了复杂光照条件下的视觉成像质量,具有较广泛的应用前景。
生物光声层析成像中不均匀和不稳定照明解决方法
孟琪, 孙正
2021, 14(2): 307-319. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0142
摘要:
在生物组织光声层析成像(Photoacoustic Tomography, PAT)算法中,为了简化问题,通常假设在均匀和稳定照明的理想情况下,重建组织的初始声压分布图、光吸收能量分布图和光学特性参数分布图。但在实际应用中,当光在生物组织中传播时,会出现光衰减和光通量分布不均匀的情况,导致重建精度下降。本文对非理想条件下用于补偿由不均匀和不稳定照明所致PAT成像误差的主要方法进行归纳和总结,讨论不同方法的优势和不足。
基于交比不变性的投影仪标定
杨建柏, 赵建, 孙强
2021, 14(2): 320-328. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0111
摘要:
提出了一种新的投影仪标定方法以提高数字光栅投影三维测量中投影仪标定的准确性。该方法结合二次投影技术和交比不变性进行投影仪标定。采用二次投影技术解决投射图案与标定板图案互相干扰的问题;采用交比不变性以避免引入相机的标定误差。接着进行了对比实验,以验证所提方法的有效性。选取需要相机参数的传统投影仪标定方法以及根据全局单应性的投影仪标定方法作为对比方法。结果显示,本方法的反投影误差标准差分别从(0.2275, 0.2264)像素和(0.1397, 0.0997)像素降低到(0.0645, 0.0601)像素,反投影误差的最大值分别从1.222像素和0.5617像素降低到0.2421像素。另外,该方法还可同时标定相机,从而获得整个三维测量系统的参数。本文提出的方法可以避免相机标定参数的误差传递,提高投影仪的标定精度。
注入功率比可调控的双泵浦复合腔501 nm青光激光器
王兰, 金光勇, 董渊, 王超
2021, 14(2): 329-335. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0161
摘要:
为了探究提高500 nm附近激光高准确度应用的理论和技术依据,本文采用双泵浦源复合腔结合非线性和频变换,实现腔内两种波长基频光无增益竞争,可提高基频光输出功率,同时在复合腔内进行多次非线性频率变换,通过调控基频光注入功率比,使腔内光子数配比达到1∶1,从而有效提高了光-光转换效率及和频输出功率。对首次建立的理论模型进行了实验验证,分别采用Nd:YAG和Nd:YVO4作为增益介质获取946 nm和1064 nm基频光输出,LBO为和频晶体;通过双泵浦源结构实现946 nm和1064 nm基频光无增益竞争,调节注入LBO光功率,对比注入功率比不同时的和频转换效率及输出功率,最终在基频光注入功率比为1.48∶1(即腔内光子数配比为1∶1)时获得最大输出功率923 mW的501 nm青光。
样品温度和空间约束两种方法相结合对激光诱导击穿光谱的影响
于丹, 孙艳, 冯志书, 代玉银, 陈安民, 金明星
2021, 14(2): 336-343. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0118
摘要:
升高样品温度和采用空间约束能提高激光诱导击穿光谱的信号强度,两种技术的结合可以进一步提高激光诱导击穿光谱的光谱强度。本文在空气环境中研究了升高样品温度和空间约束效应两种方法相结合对激光诱导击穿光谱的影响,测量了激光诱导铝等离子体的时间分辨光谱。实验结果表明:升高样品温度能增加激光诱导击穿光谱的信号强度,高温样品能耦合更多的激光能量;当圆柱形腔被用于约束等离子体时,信号强度得到了进一步提高。两个实验条件的结合对于激光诱导击穿光谱信号增强的效果明显强于单独升高样品温度或者单独采用空间约束的增强效果。单一200 °C高温下样品的Al(I) 396.2 nm线强度增加了1.4倍;单一空间约束条件下的Al(I) 396.2 nm线强度增加了1.3倍;而在200 °C和空间约束的组合条件下,Al(I) 396.2 nm线强度增加了2.1倍。这个结合效应增强效果产生主要由于激光照射高温样品产生更强的冲击波,从而能更有效地压缩高温下产生的更大尺寸的等离子体羽,进一步提高了激光诱导击穿光谱的强度。
基于多激光传感器装配的自由曲面法线找正方法研究
张赢, 丁红昌, 赵长福, 周义根, 曹国华
2021, 14(2): 344-352. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0205
摘要:
在国产化、技术自主化的大型飞机项目上,对孔位精度的标准正逐步升高,钻头的垂直度又是这一标准中最受关注的条件。机器人自动钻铆系统工作时,所产生的装配误差、磕碰、偏移等状况,不仅降低了制造及检测的准确度,还影响了整个结构件的疲劳性能。针对这一问题,提出了基于多激光传感器装配的自适应自由曲面法线检测技术,搭建了以该方法进行姿态找正的数学模型,并研究了检测装置的标定方法及流程。同时,着重讨论了在自适应方法检测时,利用电子经纬仪等装置进行误差补偿的相关技术。该方法的验证实验结果显示,多组实验数据均达到了法向精度<±0.5°的关键技术指标要求,找正后的法线平均偏差值为0.0667°。该方法能有效补偿在制孔工作中所产生的相关误差,进一步提高机器人的定位精度及法线方向检测精度。
高能激光光束质量β因子的影响因素分析
王艳茹, 王建忠, 冉铮惠, 丁宇洁
2021, 14(2): 353-360. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0137
摘要:
采用二维线性调频z变换算法,分析了影响高能激光系统光束质量β因子测量准确性的因素。本文详细分析了采样点数(即衍射极限内的采样点数)和衍射光斑图像的能量损失率对光束质量β因子的影响。在衍射极限角直径2 (λ/D)范围内不同采样点数的模拟结果表明:采样点数越高,光斑衍射图像的分辨率越高,进而光束质量β因子计算越准确。在一倍衍射极限角2.44 (λ/D)范围内应最低不少于10个采样点,即可将β因子的测量误差控制在3%。同时,不同像差对光斑图像能量损失率的敏感程度不同,相同能量损失率下,高阶像差的β因子测量误差要高于低阶像差。特别是球差类的像差对能量损失最为敏感, 约5%的能量损失就可带来15%~30%的β因子计算误差。
窄线宽1064 nm光纤激光泵浦高效率中红外3.8 μm MgO:PPLN光参量振荡器
陈柄言, 于永吉, 吴春婷, 金光勇
2021, 14(2): 361-367. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0169
摘要:
采用放大1064 nm掺镱光纤激光器作为泵浦源,实现了中红外3.8 μm MgO:PPLN 光参量振荡(OPO)激光输出。在泵浦源中,采用分布式反馈激光器(DFB)作为种子源来实现光纤激光窄线宽的调制,实现线宽2.5 nm到0.1 nm的压缩,最大平均输出功率可达40 W。进一步对不同泵浦线宽条件下中红外3.8 μm MgO:PPLN OPO激光进行研究,最终在泵浦功率为18.1 W、线宽为0.1 nm、重频为1 MHz、脉宽为2 ns时,获得了最高平均输出功率为2.06 W的3822.5 nm激光输出,光-光转换效率为11.38%,光束质量为M2=2.34,提高了窄线宽泵浦对中红外MgO:PPLN OPO激光输出效率。
变步长搜索的计算全息图编码方法
邱宏伟, 金春水, 于杰, 刘钰, 张海涛, 王丽萍, 孙诗壮
2021, 14(2): 368-374. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0124
摘要:
基于计算全息图(Computer-Generated Hologram,CGH)的非球面检测技术通过控制衍射光相位来生成所需要的参考波前,从而实现非球面的零位检测,近年来,该技术已经发展成为非球面的主流检测技术。对于CGH编码,采用传统编码方法实现高精度编码,其数据量往往高达几十甚至上百GB。因此,为同时确保编码精度高及编码数据量小,本文提出了一种变步长CGH编码方法。该方法首先通过寻找等相位面的方法得到CGH条纹分布,然后通过计算相位分布梯度选取不同的取样步长,使CGH能利用尽可能少的点实现高精度编码。利用变步长搜索的编码方法进行编码并制作了CGH对非球面样品进行检测,检测结果为3.142 nm (RMS)。为验证检测结果可信度,本文设计并制作了补偿器对同一非球面进行检测,其检测结果为3.645 nm (RMS)。对两检测结果点对点做差,RMS值为1.291 nm,结果表明该编码方法可满足非球面高精度检测需求。
表面损伤衍射双向反射分布函数模型建立及分析
陆敏, 王治乐, 张树青
2021, 14(2): 375-381. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0162
摘要:
建立了包括划痕和坑点在内的表面损伤的衍射双向反射分布函数(BRDF)模型,并分析了模型在各领域中的应用。通过使用非傍轴标量衍射理论,提出了采用相干窗口函数滤波的方法得到非相干光条件下的表面损伤衍射BRDF模型,得到了表面划痕和坑点的散射特性。该方法在表面损伤检测、表面损伤杂光分析以及图像渲染技术等领域都有重要的应用价值。
大孔径静态干涉成像光谱仪径向畸变导致的谱线偏移误差的校正
安玲坪, 王爽, 张耿, 李娟, 刘学斌
2021, 14(2): 382-389. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0084
摘要:
为提高大孔径静态干涉成像光谱仪在视场增大时的光谱定标精度,减小径向畸变对光谱精度的影响,本文提出一种基于光谱——畸变关联模型的光谱定标系数修正方法,给出了波数和波长修正公式。采用594.1 nm和632.8 nm气体激光器对成像光谱仪进行了光谱成像实验,并对数据进行了处理和分析。结果表明,当存在0.3%的桶形畸变时,边缘视场的反演光谱存在2 nm左右的偏移,利用本文方法校正后,谱线偏移减小到0.1 nm左右。该方法仅需根据镜头畸变参数即可完成修正,简化了实验室光谱定标流程,提高了工作效率,也可应用于星载干涉光谱数据的在轨参数校正。
10−9量级高灵敏度点源透射比测试设备研究
王维, 陆琳, 张天一, 王玮鹭, 刘奕辰, 孟庆宇, 徐抒岩
2021, 14(2): 390-396. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0050
摘要:
为了实现对光学系统杂散光抑制能力的定量评价,开展了10−9量级高灵敏度点源透射比测试设备的研究和实验验证。采用脉冲光源、脉冲探测的新测量方法,在保证测试系统具有高灵敏度测量能力的同时,简化了微弱光电信号探测组件的复杂程度,建立了一套最大测试口径为600 mm、测试波长为527 nm的点源透射比测试设备,并利用该设备测试了一台250 mm口径空间光学相机的点源透射比。实验结果表明:60°入射角度时的点源透射比测试结果为1.68×10−9。证明该设备的测试误差在10−9或更低的量级,具备10−9量级高灵敏度点源透射比测试能力。本文研究可以为天文望远镜、星敏感器、空间目标监视载荷等多种类型的光学仪器提供杂光抑制性能评估。
Hybrid plasmonic leaky-mode lasing on subwavelength scale
YAN Shan-shan, WANG Shuang-peng, SU Shi-chen
2021, 14(2): 397-408. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0108
摘要:
Due to the existence of diffraction limit as the basic characteristic of light, the lasing on subwavelength scale cannot be achieved by traditional methods. In order to break this diffraction limit, a stacked structure composed of metal, dielectric layer and semiconductor was designed in this paper to achieve lasing on the deep subwavelength scale and its influence on the propagation mode was discussed. In terms of structural design, we used silver, a metal with low dielectric constant, as the substrate, a 10 nm-thick LiF layer as the dielectric layer, and a ZnO semiconductor nanowire with hexagonal section as the high-dielectric-constant layer. We adopted the finite-difference eigen mode and Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method to perform optical simulation of the designed structure. First, by changing the nanowire diameter and using the finite eigen mode, the optical modes in the dielectric layer were analyzed to obtain four mode distributions. Then the effective refractive indexes and losses of the four optical modes at different nanowire diameters were used to calculate the corresponding waveguide propagation distances and lasing threshold gains. Finally, the three-dimensional FDTD method was introduced to simulate the electric field distribution of the four modes during the steady-state laser emissionin of the nanowire. The results showed that there were hybrid plasmonic mode and hybrid electric mode in the dielectric layer between the nanowire and the metal substrate. When the diameter of ZnO nanowire was smaller than 75 nm, there was no effective physical optical mode, that is, both the hybrid plasmonic mode and the hybrid electric mode were cut off. When the nanowire diameter was larger than 75 nm, the hybrid plasmonic mode could effectively exist. The hybrid electric mode did not appear until the nanowire diameter reached 120 nm. Although the hybrid plasmonic mode could be better confined to the dielectric layer, its loss was too large and its propagation distance was relatively small. In addition, the hybrid electric mode traveled a longer distance than hybrid plasmonic mode. At the given diameter of the micron wire (D = 240 μm), the hybrid electric mode propagated for over 50 μm. In conclusion, the hybrid leaky mode on the deep subwavelength scale can break the optical diffraction limit and realize lasing.
Polarization changes of partially-coherent Airy-Gaussian beams in a slanted turbulent atmosphere
CHENG Ke, LU Gang, ZHU Bo-yuan, SHU Ling-yun
2021, 14(2): 409-417. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0095
摘要:
Investigating polarization changes in a turbulent atmosphere holds great significance because polarization is one of the most important parameters in laser communication. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the unified theory of coherence and polarization, an analytical expression for the degree of polarization (DoP) in partially-coherent Airy-Gaussian beams propagating in a slanted turbulent atmosphere is derived. It is then used to study the dependence of polarization changes in turbulent parameter, coherence length, zenith angle, truncation and distribution factor. The polarization between the slanted and horizontal paths is also compared. Compared with horizontal turbulence, the beams traverse a longer distance to recover their initial polarization in slanted turbulence. An increase in the zenith angle, receiving height and truncation factor, or a decrease in the coherence length can increase the DoP. A smaller distribution factor or a higher coherence length is beneficial to reducing the effect of the zenith angle on the polarization. Analysis of the influence of the distribution factor on polarization also shows that maintaining the polarization of a Gaussian beam with higher coherence in a horizontally turbulent atmosphere has a greater advantage to that of a pure Airy beam from the view of keeping polarization invariance. The results show that optical information encoding can be achieved by selecting appropriate parameters, which is useful for studying atmospheric communication.
Enhanced dye-sensitized up-conversion luminescence of neodymium-sensitized multi-shell nanostructures
WANG Dan, XUE Bin, TU Lang-ping, ZHANG You-lin, SONG Jun, QU Jun-le, KONG Xiang-gui
2021, 14(2): 418-430. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0097
摘要:
Lanthanide-ion-doped upconversion luminescence is limited by the small absorption cross-section and narrow absorption band of lanthanide ions, which results in weak luminescence. Recently, a dye-sensitized method has proven to be an effective strategy of increasing upconversion luminescence. However, simply attaching dye molecules to nanoparticles with classic Yb-doped nanostructures cannot effectively activate the sensitizing ability of the dye molecules. In response to this problem, we designed Nd-sensitized core/shell/shell (NaYF4:Yb/Er (20/2%)@ NaYF4:Yb (10 %)@ NaYF4:Nd (80 %)) nanostructures, compared with the classic IR-806 sensitized NaYF4:Yb/Er nanostructure, their upconversion luminescence (500 to 700 nm) was approximately enhanced by a factor of 38. Through analysis of the nanostructure’s emission and luminescence lifetime data, the enhancement was confirmed by the effective overlap of Nd absorption with the emission of near-infrared dye molecules and the protective effects of the shell structure on the luminescent center (the lifetime of Er (4S3/24I15/2) was increased by 1.7 times). In addition, we found that the doping Yb3+ in the outermost layer will decrease the dye-sensitized luminescence intensity. Furthermore, this Nd-sensitized core/shell/shell structure also achieved enhancement in the sensitized upconversion luminescence of the luminescence centers of Ho and Tm, which establishes a foundation for enhanced dye-sensitized upconversion luminescence.
Line-scanning confocal microscopic imaging based on virtual structured modulation
ZHAO Jia-wang, ZHANG Yun-hai, WANG Fa-min, MIAO Xin, SHI Xin
2021, 14(2): 431-445. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0120
摘要:
Resolution in a confocal microscope is limited by the diffraction limit. Structured modulation has been proven to be able to achieve super-resolution in confocal microscopy, however, its limited speed in image acquisition limits its applicability in practical applications. In order to improve its imaging speed, we introduce a method that can achieve rapid super-resolution confocal microscopy by combining line-scanning and structured detection. A cylindrical lens is used to focus the light into a line, and a digital mask with a sinusoidal function is used to modulate the descanned image in the light detection arm. Unlike the virtual structured method, there is no need for a subsequent frequency shift process. In order to improve the isotropic resolution of the system, a scanning angle of 0 ° and 90 ° is achieved by rotating the sample. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the spectrum width of coherent transfer function expands and the resolution is 1.4 times as large as that of a conventional confocal microscope. This method increases the system’s imaging acquisition speed 104-fold when compared with a confocal structured modulation microscope that uses spot-scanning.
约稿信
《中国光学》投稿须知
2021, 14(2): 1-1.
摘要: